Akbar  thumbnail 1
Akbar  thumbnail 2
Not currently on display at the V&A

Akbar

Painting
ca. 1590-95 (made)
Artist/Maker
Place Of Origin

This painting from the Akbarnama (Book of Akbar) is the left side of a double-page composition by Basawan, one of the greatest artists at the Mughal court. The right side is Museum no. IS.2:61-1896. Together they depict a battle between sannyasis (Hindu holy men) at Thanesar in north-west India. This side of the composition, the details of which were painted by Asi (the brother of another artist, Miskina, as the contemporary inscription beneath the painting specifies) shows a tank in which other sannyasis are bathing, seemingly oblivious to the battle going on around them.

The Akbarnama was commissioned by the Mughal emperor Akbar (r.1556–1605) as the official chronicle of his reign. It was written in Persian by his court historian and biographer, Abu’l Fazl, between 1590 and 1596, and the V&A’s partial copy of the manuscript is thought to have been illustrated between about 1592 and 1595. This is thought to be the earliest illustrated version of the text, and drew upon the expertise of some of the best royal artists of the time. Many of these are listed by Abu’l Fazl in the third volume of the text, the A’in-i Akbari, and some of these names appear in the V&A illustrations, written in red ink beneath the pictures, showing that this was a royal copy made for Akbar himself. After his death, the manuscript remained in the library of his son Jahangir, from whom it was inherited by Shah Jahan.

The V&A purchased the manuscript in 1896 from Frances Clarke, the widow of Major General John Clarke, who bought it in India while serving as Commissioner of Oudh between 1858 and 1862.


object details
Categories
Object Type
Materials and Techniques
Painted in opaque watercolour and gold on paper
Brief Description
Painting, Akbarnama, Akbar watches a battle between two rival groups of sanyasis at Thanesar, outline by Basawan, painting by Asi, opaque watercolour and gold on paper, Mughal, ca. 1590-95
Physical Description
Painting, in opaque watercolour and gold on paper, left side of double picture, right side being IS.2:61-1896. Depicts Akbar watching two groups of rival Hindu devotees (sannyasis) fighting at Thanesar.
Dimensions
  • Folio height: 38.1cm
  • Folio width: 22.4cm
Content description
Emperor Akbar watching a battle between two bands of sanyasis (Hindu devotees) at Thanesar.
Styles
Marks and Inscriptions
'Tarh Basawan/Amal Asi, baradar-e Miskina' (Contemporary librarian's attribution in Persian written beneath the image at the bottom of the page in red ink.)
Object history
The Akbarnama was commissioned by the Emperor Akbar as an official chronicle of his reign. It was written by his court historian and biographer Abu'l Fazl around 1590, and illustrated during the same decade by at least forty-nine different artists from Akbar's studio. After Akbar's death, the manuscript remained in the library of his son, Jehangir. The Victoria and Albert Museum purchased it in 1896 from the widow of major General Clarke, an official who served as the Commissioner in Oudh province.



Historical significance: It is thought to be the first illustrated copy of the Akbarnama. It drew upon the expertise of some of the best royal painters of the time, many of whom receive special mention by Abu'l Fazl in the A'in-i-Akbari. The inscriptions in red ink on the bottom of the paintings name the artists.
Subjects depicted
Association
Literary ReferenceAkbarnama
Summary
This painting from the Akbarnama (Book of Akbar) is the left side of a double-page composition by Basawan, one of the greatest artists at the Mughal court. The right side is Museum no. IS.2:61-1896. Together they depict a battle between sannyasis (Hindu holy men) at Thanesar in north-west India. This side of the composition, the details of which were painted by Asi (the brother of another artist, Miskina, as the contemporary inscription beneath the painting specifies) shows a tank in which other sannyasis are bathing, seemingly oblivious to the battle going on around them.



The Akbarnama was commissioned by the Mughal emperor Akbar (r.1556–1605) as the official chronicle of his reign. It was written in Persian by his court historian and biographer, Abu’l Fazl, between 1590 and 1596, and the V&A’s partial copy of the manuscript is thought to have been illustrated between about 1592 and 1595. This is thought to be the earliest illustrated version of the text, and drew upon the expertise of some of the best royal artists of the time. Many of these are listed by Abu’l Fazl in the third volume of the text, the A’in-i Akbari, and some of these names appear in the V&A illustrations, written in red ink beneath the pictures, showing that this was a royal copy made for Akbar himself. After his death, the manuscript remained in the library of his son Jahangir, from whom it was inherited by Shah Jahan.



The V&A purchased the manuscript in 1896 from Frances Clarke, the widow of Major General John Clarke, who bought it in India while serving as Commissioner of Oudh between 1858 and 1862.
Associated Object
Bibliographic References
  • Sen, Geeti, Paintings from the Akbar Nama, Lustre Press, 1984,p. 106. James Mallinson, "Yoga & Yogis", in namarupa. Categories of Indian Thought, Issue 15 Volume 03 March 2012, pp. 16; 17 and 25 (details). James Mallinson, ‘Yogic Identities: Tradition and Transformation’, http://asia.si.edu/research/articles/yogic-identities.asp [2013]
  • STRONGE, Susan. Painting for the Mughal Emperor: The Art of the Book 1560 – 1660 London : V&A Publications, 2002. 192p, ill. ISBN 1 85177 358 4.p. 52, pl. 35
  • Diamond, D. Yoga: The Art of Transformation, Smithsonian Institute, 2013pp. 173 and 299
Other Number
140 - inscription/original number
Collection
Accession Number
IS.2:62-1896

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record createdNovember 12, 1998
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