Image of Gallery in South Kensington
On display at V&A South Kensington
Leighton, Room 102

Virtual Implants

Autostereogram
1990 (made)
Artist/Maker
Place of origin

PHSCologram (C) PHSCologram is a registered trademark for barrier-strip and lenticular autostereograms made by Chicago-based art collective (art)n laboratory. Inspired by the process oriented works of Man Ray, Duchamp and Moholy Nagy, the early process for creating PHSColograms combined sculpture with photography, resulting in a three-dimensional photograph, viewed with rear lighting.

The (art)n group Sandor formed with her peers from The School of the Art Institute in 1983 created large-scale sculptures and collaged backgrounds that were photographed 9 times at slightly different positions in a horizontal movement with a room sized camera.
These images took 30 minutes for each exposure, which were combined with a special darkroom technique to one piece of transparent, color film. A second piece of black-and- white film displaying clear vertical lines was mounted to a piece of plexiglas with the blurred, combined image mounted to the reverse. The line screen functioned as a viewing screen to interpret the transparent photograph as a three-dimensional sculpture.

By 1990, PHSColograms became a digital photographic process, by simulating the early darkroom technique with other features common to the computer graphics industry. PHSCologram imagery is constructed from sculpting objects with a computer graphics software application. These objects are painted, and placed in a scene with lighting and other special effects. Once the digital scene is complete, a series of as many as 65 images are photographed in (art)n’s proprietary art program.

(ref: artist's webpage, in references)

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read Patric D. Prince: digital art visionary Patric D. Prince (1942 – 2021) was a pioneering American collector of digital art. As a key figure in early computer and digital art, she was one of the first to recognise the importance and potential of these new art forms. Over the course of her career, she had many different roles: as c...

Object details

Categories
Object type
TitleVirtual Implants (assigned by artist)
Materials and techniques
Barrier Strip autostereogram printed on slightly transparent plastic carrier-material
Brief description
Autostereogram (PHSCologram (©), a variant of an autostereogram), 'Mapplethorpe and the Nineties', by Art(n), 1990.
Physical description
This barrier strip autostereogram depicts the upper part of a naked female body (without head) on black background. The arms are half-crossed in front of and right below the naked breasts, while holding a drapery. The picture is held in orange and there are blue stripes running diagonally from the upper left side to the bottom right side of the picture / the body respectively.
Dimensions
  • Height: 35.8cm
  • Width: 27.5cm
Copy number
5 of 90
Marks and inscriptions
(Art)n Laboratory 5/90 (On a tag on back of picture.)
Gallery label
Patric Prince: Digital Art Visionary (art)n Laboratory (founded by Ellen Sandor in 1982) Virtual Implants 1990 PHSCologram (a type of lenticular autostereogram trademarked by the collective) This artwork, made by a collective of artists and scientists called (art)n, was exhibited in the SIGGRAPH travelling art show. It was displayed with structural images of the AIDS virus, to provoke discussion. Political and figurative subjects were still unusual in digital art, but Prince recognised their importance. Given by the American Friends of the V&A through the generosity of Patric D. Prince Museum no. E.1060-2008(14/08/2023-15/09/2024)
Credit line
Given by the American Friends of the V&A through the generosity of Patric Prince
Object history
The work was first shown at Siggraph 1990 in Texas, USA. It was part of a sculpture called Politics of Pleasure/ Robert Mapplethorpe, 1990. The artists used the first black and white body scanner to scan their body parts. They then used the computer to colorize them. Following this they juxtaposed the body parts with scientifically correct sexually transmitted diseases that were jewel like.
Historical context
PHSCologram (C) PHSCologram is a registered trademark for barrier-strip and lenticular autostereograms made by Chicago-based art collective (art)n laboratory. Inspired by the process oriented works of Man Ray, Duchamp and Moholy Nagy, the early process for creating PHSColograms combined sculpture with photography, resulting in a three-dimensional photograph, viewed with rear lighting.

The (art)n group Sandor formed with her peers from The School of the Art Institute in 1983 created large-scale sculptures and collaged backgrounds that were photographed 9 times at slightly different positions in a horizontal movement with a room sized camera.
These images took 30 minutes for each exposure, which were combined with a special darkroom technique to one piece of transparent, color film. A second piece of black-and- white film displaying clear vertical lines was mounted to a piece of plexiglas with the blurred, combined image mounted to the reverse. The line screen functioned as a viewing screen to interpret the transparent photograph as a three-dimensional sculpture.

By 1990, PHSColograms became a digital photographic process, by simulating the early darkroom technique with other features common to the computer graphics industry. PHSCologram imagery is constructed from sculpting objects with a computer graphics software application. These objects are painted, and placed in a scene with lighting and other special effects. Once the digital scene is complete, a series of as many as 65 images are photographed in (art)n’s proprietary art program.
Production
(ART)n Laboratory consisted of the following collaborators: Randy Johnson, Stephen Meyers, Ellen Sandor, Dan Sandin, Tom DeFanti, Donna Cox, Dr Bernard Roizmann, Dr Patricia Spear, Paul Neumann, Maggie Rawlings (Illinois Institute of Technology).

Attribution note: Computer systems used; Pixel Machine, RAYLIB, Sun, Hewlett Packard 9000, Mac II, ECHO 3D Scanner, Crosfield Scanner, custom software.
Subject depicted
Summary
PHSCologram (C) PHSCologram is a registered trademark for barrier-strip and lenticular autostereograms made by Chicago-based art collective (art)n laboratory. Inspired by the process oriented works of Man Ray, Duchamp and Moholy Nagy, the early process for creating PHSColograms combined sculpture with photography, resulting in a three-dimensional photograph, viewed with rear lighting.

The (art)n group Sandor formed with her peers from The School of the Art Institute in 1983 created large-scale sculptures and collaged backgrounds that were photographed 9 times at slightly different positions in a horizontal movement with a room sized camera.
These images took 30 minutes for each exposure, which were combined with a special darkroom technique to one piece of transparent, color film. A second piece of black-and- white film displaying clear vertical lines was mounted to a piece of plexiglas with the blurred, combined image mounted to the reverse. The line screen functioned as a viewing screen to interpret the transparent photograph as a three-dimensional sculpture.

By 1990, PHSColograms became a digital photographic process, by simulating the early darkroom technique with other features common to the computer graphics industry. PHSCologram imagery is constructed from sculpting objects with a computer graphics software application. These objects are painted, and placed in a scene with lighting and other special effects. Once the digital scene is complete, a series of as many as 65 images are photographed in (art)n’s proprietary art program.

(ref: artist's webpage, in references)
Bibliographic reference
Collection
Accession number
E.1060-2008

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Record createdJune 8, 2009
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