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Oil painting - William III Reviewing the Dutch Fleet in 1691
  • William III Reviewing the Dutch Fleet in 1691
    Koster, Everhardus, born 1817 - died 1892
  • Enlarge image

William III Reviewing the Dutch Fleet in 1691

  • Object:

    Oil painting

  • Place of origin:

    Amsterdam (probably, painted)

  • Date:

    probably before 1859 (painted)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Koster, Everhardus, born 1817 - died 1892 (painter (artist))

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Oil on canvas

  • Credit Line:

    Given by Baron de Ferrières

  • Museum number:

    377-1876

  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

Everhardus Koster (1817-1892) was a Dutch painter and a printmaker born in The Hague where he was a pupil of Bartholomeus Johannes van Hove (1790-1880) before going to Frankfurt. He settled in Amsterdam in 1848 but after the loss of his right eye in 1859, it became more and more difficult for him to paint. He was subsequently a curator in the Museum of Modern Art, Haarlem, of which he became director in 1876. He had a number of pupils among whom Jan Adam Kruseman (1804-1862), Jan Theodoor Kruseman (1835-1895), Alida Elisabeth van Stolk (1830-ca. 1884).

This painting is a good example of Everhardus Koster's large output of river views and seascapes, a genre in which he had a great success during the first half of the 19th century. The subject matter relates to the review of the Dutch fleet by William III presumably on the occasion of the pacification of Limerick in 1691. The large format and the compositional idea go back to the great tradition of marine paintings during the 17th century, which recorded the great political and commercial naval events. It is a pendant to 376-1876.

Physical description

The Dutch fleet including of many war-of-man ships, states ships with their flags and wherries are at anchor on a calm sea, not far from the shore, under a cloudy sky, bathed in the sunlight's golden glow.

Place of Origin

Amsterdam (probably, painted)

Date

probably before 1859 (painted)

Artist/maker

Koster, Everhardus, born 1817 - died 1892 (painter (artist))

Materials and Techniques

Oil on canvas

Marks and inscriptions

'E. Koster ft.'
Signed by the artist, lower left

Dimensions

Height: 147.3 cm estimate, Width: 400 cm estimate, :

Object history note

Given by Baron de Ferrières, 1876

Historical significance: This painting shows the Dutch fleet at anchor, not far from the shore, under a wide, cloudy sky. It depicts the review of the Dutch fleet by King William III which occurred during, or just after, the Pacification of Limerick on 13 October 1691, which marked the final capitulation of the Jacobite supporters of James II. It forms a pendant with 376-1876, which shows the beginning of William III's conquest.

The treatment of the composition, as well as its subject matter, points back to the great Dutch Marine painters of the 17th century, especially such artists as Willem van de Velde the elder (1611-1693) and younger (1633-1707). Everhardus Koster was inspired by such works as Van de Velde the Younger's Grande flotte à l'ancre, Musée du Louvre, Paris (RF 724), and his grisaille paintings in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. However, no earlier works have been identified as models for the present painting.

Historical context note

Everhardus Koster (1817-1892) was born in The Hague, where he was a pupil of Bartholomeus Johannes van Hove (1790-1880) before moving to Frankfurt. He settled in Amsterdam in 1848, but after the loss of his right eye in 1859, it became increasingly difficult for him to paint. He subsequently became a curator at the Museum of Modern Art, Haarlem, of which he became director in 1876. He had a number of pupils, among which Jan Adam Kruseman (1804-1862), Jan Theodoor Kruseman (1835-1895), and Alida Elisabeth van Stolk (1830-ca. 1884). He enjoyed considerable success as a painter and print maker.

This work and its pendant no.376-1876 were given to the Museum in 1876 by Baron Charles de Ferrieres (1823-1908). Born in the Netherlands to a family of Huguenot origin and an English mother, he was naturalised as a British citizen and succeded to his title in the Dutch peerage in 1867. He was made mayor of Cheltenham in 1877 and in 1880 elected its Liberal M.P., holding the seat until 1885. He is best remembered for his gift to Cheltenham of its art gallery and paintings from his father's collection. In view of his own Anglo-Dutch parentage and adopted British nationality, it is likely that he commissioned these large history paintings from Everhardus Koster. His decision to give them to the South Kensington Museum was perhaps motivated by the fact that his wife Anne Sheepshanks (1823-1909) was a niece of John Sheepshanks (1787-1863), who had founded the museum's paintings collection in 1857.

The great tradition of the Golden Age constituted a real burden for Dutch painters in the 19th century, and many continued to paint in the style of the masters of the 17th century. 19th-century Dutch paintings were popular with British collectors, including James Staats Forbes (1823-1904), Alexander Young and Sir John Charles Frederic Sigismund Day (1826-1908).

Descriptive line

Oil painting, 'William III Reviewing the Dutch Fleet in 1691', Everhardus Koster, before 1859

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Kauffmann, C.M., Catalogue of Foreign Paintings, II. 1800-1900, London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1973, pp. 57-57, cat. no. 126.

Materials

Oil paint; Canvas

Techniques

Oil painting

Subjects depicted

Clouds; Fleet; Flags; Marine; Sea; Ships; Ships

Categories

Paintings

Collection

Prints, Drawings & Paintings Collection

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