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Relief - The Demolition of the Citadel of Antwerp by the Citizens
  • The Demolition of the Citadel of Antwerp by the Citizens
    Jonghelinck, Jacques de, born 1530 - died 1606
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The Demolition of the Citadel of Antwerp by the Citizens

  • Object:

    Relief

  • Place of origin:

    Antwerp (possibly, made)

  • Date:

    ca. 1580 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Jonghelinck, Jacques de, born 1530 - died 1606 (maker)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Bronze

  • Credit Line:

    Purchased with assistance of the bequest of M. L. Horn and the J. R. Vallentin Fund

  • Museum number:

    A.37-1975

  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

This is one of a series of roundels depicting the 'Spanish Fury' of 1576 and events at Antwerp in August 1577. This roundel depicts the Demolition of the Citadel of Antwerp by the Citizens. Between 4-6 November 1576 mercenaries in the Spanish service launched a full-scale attack on Antwerp (see inv.no. A.38-1975). Over 2500 citizens were murdered and 100 houses burned down, including the magnificent Town Hall. In August 1577, however, the Netherlandish coalition overthrew the Spanish troops in the Citadel, as depicted in the medal A.34-1975. They then negotiated with the German mercenaries to withdraw (see inv.no. A.36-1975).
Five of the compositions are derived from a set of seven engravings by the Wierix brothers, after designs by Marten de Vos. That showing the Spanish Fury, a separate event, has no direct prototype and is unique. The translation of the engravings into low-reliefs is highly competent and bespeaks the hand of a master, as does their technical excellence. The minuteness of detail and the style of the figures points towards the medallist and bronze-sculptor, Jacques Jongheling, who was Master at the Mint at that time.
Jongheling worked in the Mannerist style that was common to all media in Antwerp in the last third of the sixteenth century.

Physical description

The roundel depicts the virtually complete destruction of the citadel, with the corps of volunteers marching back to the city, led by a drummer, their picks and shovels on their shoulders, and baskets in their hands. The internal ramparts of the citadel, which had been handed over to the Estates General, were destroyed on 23 August 1577.

Place of Origin

Antwerp (possibly, made)

Date

ca. 1580 (made)

Artist/maker

Jonghelinck, Jacques de, born 1530 - died 1606 (maker)

Materials and Techniques

Bronze

Dimensions

Diameter: 18 cm

Object history note

Whole series (A.33 to A.38-1975) bought for £2,400 with the assistance of the bequest of M. L. Horn and the J. R. Vallentin Fund, from David Peel & Co Ltd, London, in 1975.
This is one of a series of roundels depicting the 'Spanish Fury' of 1576 and events at Antwerp in August 1577.

Historical context note

This relief is part of a set which depict the events of the 4-6 November 1576 when mercenaries in the Spanish service launched a full-scale attack on Antwerp (see inv.no. A.38-1975). Over 2500 citizens were murdered and 100 houses burned down, including the magnificent Town Hall. In August 1577, however, the Netherlandish coalition overthrew the Spanish troops in the Citadel. They then negotiated with the German mercenaries to withdraw (see inv.no. A.36-1975).

Descriptive line

Plaquette, bronze relief, the Demolition of the Citadel of Antwerp, attributed to Jacques Jongheling (1530-1606), Flemish, about 1580

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Avery, Charles, "Antwerp, August 1577 - the 'Spanish Fury' and the Liberation of the Citadel: a series of bronze plaquettes after Martin de Vos", in: Avery, C., Studies in European Sculpture, London, 1981, pp. 133-147
Weber, I. Deutsche, Niederländische und Französische Renaissance Plaketten. Munich, 1975, p. 307, No. 709, 1, pl. 195
, 1996, p. 144

Materials

Bronze

Categories

Sculpture; Coins & Medals; Plaques & Plaquettes; Politics

Collection

Sculpture Collection

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