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Fragment - The Stein Collection

The Stein Collection

  • Object:


  • Place of origin:

    Niya (excavated)

  • Date:

    100-300 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:


  • Materials and Techniques:

    Plain woven wool and stitching

  • Credit Line:

    Stein Textile Loan Collection. On loan from the Government of India and the Archaeological Survey of India. Copyright: Government of India.

  • Museum number:


  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

This textile fragment is of plain weave buff wool, gathered into a band of the same fabric, which has been folded over and stitched. At one end of the piece has been stitched pieces of plain weave red wool and a ball of cream thread. Its original use is unclear. It was recovered from the site of Niya, which dates from the 2rd to the 3rd century AD. Niya was probably the capital city of the kingdom of Shanshan whose people were of Indian origin. The site of Niya is remarkable for the carved wooden capitals, beams and balustrades that show similarities to the western classical decoration that filtered through Iran and Northwest India.

The site is in an area of central Asia now referred to as the Silk Road, a series of overland trade routes that crossed Asia, from China to Europe. The most notable item traded was silk. Camels and horses were used as pack animals and merchants passed their goods from oasis to oasis. The Silk Road was also important for the exchange of ideas – while silk textiles travelled west from China, Buddhism entered China from India in this way.

This piece was brought back from Central Asia by the explorer and archaeologist Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1862–1943). The Victoria and Albert Museum has around 700 ancient and medieval textiles recovered by Stein at the beginning of the twentieth century. The textiles range in date from the second century BC to the twelfth century AD. Some are silk while others are made from the wool of a variety of different animals.

Physical description

Piece of monochrome plain weave buff wool, gathered into a band of the same fabric, which has been folded over and stitched. At one end of the piece, smaller pieces of monochrome plain weave red wool and a ball of cream thread have been stitched.

Fibre analysis: Non-pigmented. Hairy Medium fleece type, based on the following measurements of fibre diameters (in microns): range 12-61, mode 21, mean±S.D 24.7±9.6, coefficient of skew +0.93 (skewed to positive), 4% medullated fibres, 0% pigmented. (from "Aurel Stein Fibres 1")

Place of Origin

Niya (excavated)


100-300 (made)



Materials and Techniques

Plain woven wool and stitching


Length: 38 cm gathered piece, Width: 11 cm gathered piece

Object history note

Detached from fragment is a circular tag label showing Stein number possibly in Stein's handwriting or that of his assistant, Miss F M G Lorimer.

Historical context note

Niya includes a group of towns in the southern region of the Taklamakan Desert, at the foot of the Kunlun mountains. Once a military post under the Kingdom of Khotan, Niya became an important oasis along the southern Silk Road. Stein excavated several groups of dwellings there and found hundreds of wedge-shaped wooden tablets, some laced together in pairs with string and affixed with clay seals. The appearance of Pallas Athena, Eros and other Greek deities on some seals showed the impact of western classical art on Khotan. The tablets were inscribed with Kharoshthi, an ancient script of northwest India. Stein identified some as Buddhist prayers and others as administrative documents and he dated them to the period of the Kushan empire, which thrived in the first three centuries AD. Among ruins of dwellings and orchards, Stein found numerous textile fragments, Roman coins, wooden furniture with elaborate carving, pottery, Chinese basketry and lacquer, and documents in Chinese script which he dated to the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The V&A holds, on loan, a large number of textiles from Niya, including leather, wool yarn, appliquéd and stitched wool felt, and braided animal hair.

Descriptive line

Piece of gathered plain woven buff unidentified fibre with fragments attached.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Wilson, Verity. 'Early Textiles from Central Asia: Approaches to Study with reference to the Stein Loan Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London', Textile History 26 (1) . Devon: David & Charles/Pasold Research Fund Ltd, 1995, pp.23-52.ill.
Stein, Aurel, Serindia: Detailed Report of Exploration in Central Asia and Westernmost China Carried Out and Described Under the Orders of H.M Indian Government , 5 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1921), vol. I, p.262.


Plain weave; Stitching


Archaeology; Textiles


East Asia Collection

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