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An Unknown Woman, aged 26

  • Object:

    Portrait miniature

  • Place of origin:

    England, Great Britain (painted)

  • Date:

    1593 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Hilliard, Nicholas, born 1542 - died 1619 (painter (artist))

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Watercolour on vellum stuck onto a playing card

  • Credit Line:

    Bequeathed by George Salting

  • Museum number:

    P.134-1910

  • Gallery location:

    British Galleries, room 57a, case 3

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Object Type
The medium and techniques of miniature painting, or limning as it was traditionally called, developed from the art of illustrating sacred books (also called limning). Nicholas Hilliard first trained as a goldsmith and introduced to this watercolour art innovative techniques for painting gold and jewels. In this miniature we see his characteristic curling and scrolling calligraphy, painted in real gold and then burnished.

Place
Nicholas Hilliard set up business in Gutter Lane in the City of London. In his treatise on limning Hilliard noted that limners should choose an area away from other trades, a 'place where neither dust, smoke, noise nor stench may offend' and some colours would suffer in the 'sulphurous air of seacoal and the gilding of goldsmiths'. Also 'the place where you work' should be lit from the north-east by one window, 'great and fair', with no walls or trees blocking the light. The late Medieval buildings of London would have made it hard to find such a workplace.

People
This sitter was once called Mistress Holland, Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth, because of a later inscription on the miniature's back. There is no real proof that she is Mistress Holland, but her magnificent costume, embroidered with tiny bees and deer, does not rule against her being a lady of the court.

Physical description

Portrait miniature of a woman, half-length, turned slightly to left and looking to front. Oval with inscriptions in gold above the head. There are five spades printed on the reverse of the backing sheet.

Place of Origin

England, Great Britain (painted)

Date

1593 (made)

Artist/maker

Hilliard, Nicholas, born 1542 - died 1619 (painter (artist))

Materials and Techniques

Watercolour on vellum stuck onto a playing card

Marks and inscriptions

'Ano Dni. 1593. AEtatis suae. 26'
'Mrs – Holland / Maid of Honor in the / Court of Queen / Elizabeth / by Hilliard Senr.'

Dimensions

Height: 5.8 cm, Width: 4.8 cm

Object history note

Previously thought to be a portrait of Mrs Holland because of a nineteenth-century inscription on the reverse.

Provenance: In the collection of Samuel Addington in 1865 when lent to the South Kensington Exhibition as Mrs Holland, sold in his sale as Lady Elizabeth Russell, Christie’s 26th April 1883 (lot 87); bought Wareham; J. Lumsden Propert Collection; purchased by Salting at the dissolution of that collection in 1897 by the Fine Art Society; bequeathed by Salting 1910.

Descriptive line

Portrait of a woman, previously thought to be Mrs Holland, watercolour on vellum, painted by Nicholas Hilliard, 1593.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Strong, Roy. Artists of the Tudor Court: the Portrait Miniature Rediscovered 1520-1620.. London: The Victoria and Albert Museum, 1983.
Cat. 95, p. 81. Full Citation:

“NICHOLAS HILLIARD

95 Unknown Lady, aged 26, 1593

Victoria & Albert Museum (P.134-1910)
Vellum stuck onto playing card with five spades showing at the reverse, oval, 58 x 48 mm. 2 9/32 x 1 29/32 in.

Formerly called Mrs Holland, an identity attached to the miniature by a nineteenth century inscription on its reverse, it was also called Elizabeth, Lady Russell. Both identifications are purely speculative. In spire of its faded condition this is a fine ad vivum miniature and the earliest dated instance of Hilliard painting the sitter’s hair not in the usual free manner but in imitation of Oliver with carefully marshalled tight brush strokes in ordered lines.

INSCRIBED: Around the top: Ano Dni. 1593. AEtatis suae. 26 and a fleur de lys. On the reverse in a nineteenth century hand: Mrs – Holland / Maid of Honor in the / Court of Queen / Elizabeth / by Hilliard Senr.

COLLECTIONS: In the collection of Samuel Addington in 1865 when lent to the South Kensington Exhibition as Mrs Holland, sold in his sale as Lady Elizabeth Russell, Christie’s 26th April 1883 (lot 87); bought Wareham; J. Lumsden Propert Collection; purchased by Salting at the dissolution of that collection in 1897 by the Fine Art Society; bequeathed by Salting 1910.

LITERATURE: Winter, Elizabethan Miniatures, pl. 11 (a).
V&A, 1947 (60).
Auerbach, Hilliard, p. 133, pl. 202, 305 (102).”

Exhibition History

Nicholas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver (Victoria and Albert Museum 01/01/1947-31/12/1947)
Artists of the Tudor Court: the portrait miniature rediscovered, 1520-1620 (Victoria and Albert Museum 09/07/1983-06/11/1983)

Labels and date

British Galleries:
Nicholas Hilliard and Miniature Painting

Nicholas Hilliard trained as a goldsmith and developed painting techniques that exploited this training. He used metallic pigments to mimic the jewellery on the opulent clothes that were fashionable. Hilliard created the image of Elizabeth and her courtiers that we know today, but he never won a salaried position at court. He had to set up shop in the City of London. From there he painted anyone who could afford his services.

TWO UNIDENTIFIED PORTRAITS

The young man clearly intended his portrait to be a very personal gift. He stands dressed only in his shirt, turning a jewel to his heart. The flames almost certainly symbolise passion. In contrast, the woman chose a conventional pose. Hilliard has carefully painted her magnificent dress decorated with tiny embroidered bees and deer. [27/03/2003]

Materials

Watercolour; Card; Vellum

Techniques

Painting

Subjects depicted

Woman; Deer; Ruff; Bees

Categories

British Galleries; Portraits; Paintings

Collection code

PDP

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Qr_O74875
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