- Place of origin:
Bressanone, Italy (made)
ca. 1500-1510 (made)
Potsch, Rupert, born 1475 - died 1530 (maker)
Diemer, Philipp, born 1496 - died 1515 (maker)
- Materials and Techniques:
Limewood and pine, painted and gilded
- Museum number:
192 to D-1866
- Gallery location:
Medieval and Renaissance, room 50b, case FS
An altarpiece is an image-bearing structure that stands on or behind the altar in a Christian church. According to local tradition, this altarpiece came from the church of St Andrew in Klausen near Brixen (now Bressanone, Italy). The church was rebuilt and extended between 1482 and 1498, and in 1506 Ruprecht Potsch and Philipp Diemer were commissioned to provide the high altarpiece.
A document dated 1509 notes that the altarpiece is finished but mentions some faults and work yet to be done. A coat of arms was to be provided, and the reverse of the altarpiece was to be painted with floral ornaments. Unfortunately, there is no description in the document of the altarpiece's imagery.
This altarpiece would fit into the choir of St Andrew's church. The width (2.27 m) of the predella, the decorated step-like block that supports the main frame, is approximately the width of the existing altar (2.37 m). However, there is no documentary evidence that it came from Klausen. Significantly, St Andrew, the patron saint of the church, is not included in the iconographical scheme.
[Altarpiece Virgin & Child with saints] The corpus is dominated by the figure of the seated Virgin on a bench, her hands in prayer, with the naked Christ Child in her lap on a cushion. She is surrounded by five angels, three holding the cloth-of-honour behind her, two kneeling in front of her on either side of the base; she is flanked by the standing figures of St Florian on her left (identified by his attribute, the brick gate-house on fire) and St John the Baptist on the right. Outside, on either side of the corpus, were originally attached the figures of St Peter (left) and St Paul (right), each probably standing on a console, and only visible when the altarpiece was closed. They are now kept separately. The corpus was originally surmounted by a crowning superstructure. The holes in the top of the central compartment suggest that this was a crucifix; other holes on either side of the central panel suggest there were two further tabernacles with a single figure in each, almost certainly the Mourning Virgin and St John the Evangelist.
The altarpiece was restored at an unknown date after 1904. The wings are now held by iron rods at the top and bottom.
The corpus and its figures (colour plate *)
The corpus comprises a moulded rectangular frame, two side panels with screw-holes for the figures of St Peter and St Paul which were previously attached, and which are now kept separately; one panel at the top with several holes (see above); a panel at the bottom, while seven more panels form the back of the corpus, of which three in the centre form the three-sided niche for the Virgin, reinforced by iron strips. The frame and all the panels are of pine. Two hinges on either side of the frame are missing. The front of the frame shows traces of a decorative pressed brocade wax application, while the back of the corpus is unpainted.
The pierced tracery at the top is gilded, with blue and red details. There are two two-sided canopies for the saints, with three empty shields on each canopy (four are missing), and a three-sided canopy for the Virgin with four shields (two are missing). The two moulded pilasters on either side of the Virgin are painted blue with gilded borders. The console of the left pilaster is missing. A photograph of 1922 (fig. ) shows figures of St Barbara (192A-1866) on the right console, and St Catherine (192B-1866) attached to the left pilaster. These two figures were, according to R. P. Bedford, Deputy Keeper in the Department of Sculpture classified as "Brussels, about 1500" in 1932 and were consequently removed (Departmental records; see Williamson 2002). The front of the back panel has a layer of fabric and gilded gesso of ornamental flowers cut in gesso; the back panel of the niche of the Virgin beneath the cloth-of-honour has been overpainted in blue, as has the ceiling behind the canopies. The bases are separately made and decorated with gilded leaves attached to the front. The hexagonal base for the Virgin is covered additionally with a fictive cloth decorated with pressed wax brocade, which is now deteriorated; the fringes have been overpainted in red.
The figure is carved from three pieces of pine and has been hollowed out at the back; the Christ Child and the cushion are separately carved. The Virgin's hair and mantle are gilded, the latter with a blue overpaint on the inner surface. Her gown shows traces of pressed brocade application; the sleeves and hem have gilded borders. The body of the Child is painted in natural flesh tones; his hair is brown. The cushion is white with red stripes and silvered tassels. Two cracks run through the Virgin's face: from her left nostril down to the neck, and from the top of the head, through her right eye, down to the cheek. Two holes are in the back of her head. The Virgin's right shoe, all the fingers of the right hand and the totop joints of the Child's fingers on his left hand are missing. A crack runs through the head of the Child.
The kneeling angels and those holding the cloth-of-honour
Each of the kneeling angels is carved from a solid block of pine. The paint of the albs has been removed although traces of a layer of white ground (gesso) under tarnished silver can be glimpsed. The wings and forearms of the angels, and the tip of the nose of the right angel are missing; the slots into which the wings were fixed are visible. The cloth-of-honour behind the Virgin and the angels holding it are composed of three pieces of wood attached to the back panel. The cloth shows traces of wax application on white ground, and red overpaint on the fringe. The feathers on the wings of the angels were silvered, the albs are white with wax applications, and the sleeves are overpainted in green. One left and one right wing of the angels on either side of the cloth are missing.
The figure is carved from a solid block of pine; the back is hollowed out. In the plinth and on top of the head are holes, the latter filled with a fixing device. The face and hands show a natural flesh-coloured paint, the latter with carved dark-blue veins; the hair and beard are painted brown. The coat of mail, breastplate, arm and leg harness, and the sheaths for a set of three daggers on a black girdle were silvered with gilded borders and decorations, while the cauter on the right arm, the pauldrons, the pommel, the decoration of the scabbard of the sword and the coat are gilded, the lining of the latter overpainted in green. The woven hairband is partly silvered and gilded. His shoes are red, and the plinth on which brown stones are painted has been overpainted in green. The separately carved model of a fortified town at ththe figure's feet shows a white-painted brick gate-house on fire, although only one carved red flame emerging from one of the windows has survived, and a dark red tower surmounted by a gilded finial. The fingers of both hands, his attribute - a bucket with which he poured water onto the burning town - (originally held with in his right hand) - the hilts of the daggers, and the lance-rest are all now missing.
St John the Baptist
The figure is carved from a solid block of pine with the back hollowed out. The book and the lamb have been carved separately. The mantle is gilded with a red lining. The hair, the luxuriant beard, the tunic of animals' skins, and the hooves of the lamb are brown. The lamb and the woven girdle of the saint are white, while the book cover is blue with gilded clasps. The forefinger and thumb of his right hand, a triangular piece of the plinth, and the toe of the left foot are missing. The right ear of the lamb is a later addition.
The crowning superstructure
This part of the altarpiece is missing, although the fixing holes in the top panel of wood remain: those for the pilasters of the tabernacles are square, while those for the figures are circular.
Each wing comprises a rectangular frame, and two panel paintings on the reverse; the front surfaces of the wings, to which reliefs are attached, are gilded. The fronts of the frames show traces of pressed brocade wax on a white gesso ground. The reverses are painted red with stencilled flowers in yellow mouldings. The reliefs themselves are surmounted by pierced tracery of gilded intertwining leaves, and on either side by twisted foliate branches on a fluted plinth. The reliefs are separated by horizontal bands of pierced tracery and embellished with a similar structure beneath. Some of the tracery on the right beneath the Adoration of the Magi is missing.
The four reliefs depict scenes from the early Life of Christ beginning with the Annunciation, which shows the kneeling Virgin in front of a lectern with an open book turning her head towards the approaching angel. The Nativity depicts the Christ Child in a cradle flanked by two angels, the kneeling Virgin in prayer, St Joseph standing, a shepherd, and the heads of the ox and ass. The Adoration of the Magi shows the three kings offering their gifts, and the Presentation in the Temple depicts the high priest Simeon presenting the Christ Child on the altar with the Virgin, St Joseph with a staff, a maid-servant who carries the basket with the two doves, and an attendant behind Simeon.
The Virgin wears a gilded mantle lined in blue, a white gown with traces of wax pressed brocade and gilded borders, and a white veil. The angel is dressed in a gilded cope with red overpainted fringes and a red lining, a white alb with gilded borders, and has wings which were originally gilded. The faces are painted in natural flesh tones. The curtain is rendered white with traces of wax pressed brocade and gilded borders; the lectern is brown; the red prayer book is edged in green. The wall is light blue, and the mountainous background green.
The Presentation in the Temple
The Virgin and the handmaiden wear gilded mantles with blue and red linings respectively, and gowns with traces of wax pressed brocade with gilded borders and hems; their shoes are painted black. The handmaiden's head is covered by her mantle over a white wimple, while the Virgin's head is covered by a white veil. St Joseph is shown in a tunic with pressed brocade with gilded buttons and a gilded collar, a green (overpainted) hat, and a brown stick. The attendant behind Simeon wears a chaperon which is gilded under a red glaze; his tunic is decorated with pressed brocade, and with a gilded collar. Simeon's mitre is gilded, as is the mantle, which has a red lining, and which he wears over a pressed brocaded tunic. The faces, hands, and the naked body of the Child are painted in natural flesh tones. The hair and ththe beards are painted brown, except Simeon's which is grey. The altar, roof and columns are purple, the capitals and the flutes of the latter, originally silvered, are now gilded. The feet, knops and sockets of the candlesticks are gilded; the stem was originally silvered. The background has been overpainted in purple. The Nativity
The mantle of the Virgin is gilded with a blue lining, while the gown shows traces of pressed brocade; the borders at the neck, the wrist and the slashed sleeve at the elbow are gilded, the latter at the right elbow revealing a white inner garment. The cloth of the dark green cradle on which the Child rests is white, as is the alb with a gilded collar of the angel beside him. The alb of the angel behind the Child retains traces of wax application. The angels' hair is painted yellow and the wings are gilded. St. Joseph wears a tunic with gilded buttons and borders under a gilded mantle with a red lining. The sleeve of his right arm has been overpainted in green; his headdress is gilded under a red glaze. The shepherd is dressed in a red coat, a green collar and a flat brown hat. The natural flesh tones of the faces and hands are well preserved. The ox is brownish-red and the ass grey. The wall of the dilapidated stable is overpainted in purple; the hillside and the ground are painted green. Parts of the Virgin's fingers on her left hand are missing; the forefinger of the infant's right hand, and St Joseph's stick are lost.
The Adoration of the Magi
The mantle of the Virgin, and those of Caspar (kneeling), and Balthasar are gilded; the linings have been overpainted in blue, red and green respectively. The white tunics of Caspar and Balthasar, the red coat and platted gown of Melchior, and the white gown of the Virgin, slashed at the elbows, are decorated with traces of pressed brocade and gilded borders. Melchior wears a turban, long sleeves with a white inner surface and originally silvered borders, and black hose with gilded spurs. The vessel filled with coins, and the spurs of the elder Magus, the covered cup of Balthasar, and Melchior's Traubenpokal and neck-chain are gilded, as is Balthasar's hat, which is also glazed in red. The Child is painted in natural flesh tones. Caspar's hair and beard are grey, while the Christ Child's hair and Balthasar's hair and beard are brown. The dilapidated stable is purple, and the hillside green. The left forearm of the Child, a joint of the small finger of the right hand of Melchior and several studs of Balthasar's hat are missing.
The paintings (figs. **)
When the altarpiece is closed the paintings displayed are as follows: on the left wing (fig.) St Corbinian and St Blaise (?) or St Adalbert (?), and St George and the Dragon; on the right wing A Virgin Martyr Saint and St Agatha(?) or St Beatrice (?), and St Martin and the Beggar.
Several areas, particularly those in light and dark red have disintegrated. The surface is scratched. Executed in tempera.
The backgrounds of the four paintings show a mountainous landscapes with river valleys. The saints' haloes are gilded and encircled in black.
Top left wing: The two saints are slightly turned to each other. St Corbinian wears a green cope held by a quadrilobe-shaped gilded clasp over a purple dalmatic with a yellow border, a white alb and amice, and yellow gloves. The border of the cope is gilded and embellished with sewn pearls and a mounted precious stone in the centre. The same pattern is also visible at the bands of the mitre; the red panels on it are decorated with lozenges formed by thin black lines; the lappets are red. The saint holds a gilded crozier and a white pannisellus in his left hand. His attribute, a black bear appears at his feet. St Blaise(?)/ St Adalbert (?) is clad in a red cope held together by a gilded circular clasp over a dalmatic decorated with pressed brocade patterns and a white alb and amice. He wears greyish-green gloves. The gilded bands of the mitre are studded with pearls; the lappets and the white panels have red lozenges. The saint holds a gilded crozier in the crook of his right arm, and points with his right index finger to a line in the book which he holds; he holds a candle in his left hand.
Lower left wing: St George is depicted in the foreground on horseback, clad in grey armour with white highlights, and attacks a green dragon with red wings with a lance in his right hand, while his left holds a shield. The white horse has red trappings with gilded buttons; its head is protected by a gilded chanfron. The princess Cleodolinda kneels on a hillock above, dressed in a gown with gilded pressed brocade patterns; at her side is a white lamb.
Top right wing: The pose of the two saints with wavy fair hair is similar to those on the left wing. A so-far unidentified Virgin Saint on the left side is dressed in a red mantle, held by a gilded oval clasp, over a purple gown. She holds a green palm frond in her right hand. St Agatha(?) /St Beatrice (?) in a red and white headdress wears a green mantle over a dark red gown with white sleeves and border. She holds a green palm frond in her left hand and a burning candle in her right .
(Lower right wing): St Martin, with fair hair on a brown horse with black trappings decorated with gilded roundels, is shown dividing his red cloak with a sword. He wears a red hat, a short green robe with gilded edges, and black hose with gilded spurs and stirrups, while the naked beggar wears a white garment and white cloth is wrapped around his legs.
The predella and its paintings (fig.*)
The predella, made of pinewood, consists of an oblong rectangular chest or corpus fitted onto a moulded socle and surmounted by a moulded element on which the main corpus rests. The inner surface of the shutters is painted blue, although this was probably originally decorated additionally with foliate tracery, gilded gesso and carved ornamental flowers, haloes, and a large segment with wax applications. The two reliefs which were attached to the inner surfaces of the doors are missing, although the outlines of the two figures, almost certainly saints, are still visible (fig.) The upper part of the back panel of the niche itself is decorated with a layer of gilded gesso with ornamental flowers cut in, while the lower part shows the outline of three arches, which are now missing. The size of the contours of the arches suggests that threereliquary busts would have occupied the spaces beneath. The niche is terminated by concave element which is painted blue. The top of the niche was originally decorated with tracery which has now been lost. The back of the predella shows traces of painted floral patterns.
When the shutters of the predella are closed the panels depict (from left to right): St Barbara,
St Dorothy, St Catherine and St Margaret (fig.*)
On all four panels the painted and gilded foliate scrolls surmounting the saints are slightly damaged, the pressed brocade patterns on the cloth of honour have deteriorated, and some areas of the blue background show overpaint. Some holes are drilled into the paintings which are slightly chipped. The deep red colour of St Dorothy's mantle and of the lining of St Margaret's mantle has disintegrated. All four saints, shown with gilded haloes and crowns, stand on a sloped tiled floor in front of a cloth-of-honour against a dark blue background under gilded foliated scrollwork. The hands and faces are painted in natural flesh tones, and the hair in light brown with yellow highlights. St Barbara wears a red high-belted gown with pressed brocaded patterns under a green mantle. The chalice held in her left hand is gilded and the protruding shoe is red. St Dorothy is clad in a blue gown (mostly overpaint) under a red mantle; in her left hand she holds a flower taken from the yellow basket of red and white roses offered by the Christ Child, while her right hand holds a half-open book with a black binding and a yellow clasp. The Christ Child wears a white tunic. St Catherine wears a white mantle over a green gown decorated with pressed brocaded patterns painted dark red and highlighted in yellow, and holds a sword (the blade, pommel and hilt are gilded; the handle is painted black). Her attribute, the broken brown wheel lies on the floor in front of her. St Margaret, with a green gown under a red mantle, holds a gilded staff surmounted by a cross in her left hand, and around the little finger of the same hand a ring of the gilded chain which is fastened around the neck of the dragon at her side. She appears to read a book bound in black with a yellow clasp held in her right hand.
[Statue] St Peter and St Paul (192C/192D-1866) (figs.**)
The figure of St Paul is carved in the round from a solid block of pine and has not been hollowed out. A hole under the base has been drilled to a depth of 48cm. Traces of wax pressed brocade remain on the white tunic which has a gilded border; its sleeves are overpainted in red. The mantle appears to have been repainted in a greyish-green colour. The natural flesh-coloured paint of the hands and face remains intact, although a few areas have been retouched. Half of the socle and the right foot are broken off, and the left hand with the attribute (a sword) is missing. A vertical crack runs from the top of the head through the left side of the face down to the base. Several chips occur on the border of the tunic and the mantle. An area from the left shoulder to the waist is flattened and pierced with a screw-hole
[Statue] St Peter and St Paul (192C/192D-1866) (figs.**)
The figure of St Peter is carved in the round from a solid block of pine and has not been hollowed out. A hole under the base has been drilled to a depth of 45.8cm. The mantle is partly stripped, and has been overpainted in green with a gilded border. The white tunic shows traces of pressed brocade in wax. The face and hands are painted in natural flesh colours. The fingers of the right hand, the toes of the right foot, parts of the socle, and the attribute (a bunch of keys) are missing. An area on the right shoulder has been flattened so that the figure could be fixed; two screw-holes at heights of 74.5 and 70cm respectively are still in situ.
Place of Origin
Bressanone, Italy (made)
ca. 1500-1510 (made)
Potsch, Rupert, born 1475 - died 1530 (maker)
Diemer, Philipp, born 1496 - died 1515 (maker)
Materials and Techniques
Limewood and pine, painted and gilded
Height: 416 cm open, Width: 465.5 cm open
[Statue] Height: 110.5 cm
[Statue] Height: 112 cm
Object history note
Bought from Dr Antonio Salviati, London, for £250 in 1866.
Historical significance: On acquisition the altarpiece was classified as German, fifteenth century; Bode agreed with this description in about 1890, but suggested a more precise date of about 1490 (Departmental records). Baum (1923, p. 66) ascribed it to Ivo Strigel (active about 1480 -1516), who ran a workshop in Memmingen in Swabia, citing as a comparison Strigel's altarpiece in the church of St Veit near Tartscher Bühel, dated 1514 (Egg 1985, fig. 296; for Strigel's workshop, p. 373). Scheffler (1967, p. 89) suggested an origin in the Puster valley; this was rejected by Baxandall (1974, pp. 36-7), who attributed it to a workshop in Brixen "influenced by Hans Klocker; the sculptures of the altar are not consistent enough with those firmly associated with Klocker himself" to argue an origin in Klocker's own shop. Müller (1976, pp. 36, 441) agreed with this. The paintings were first published by Kauffmann (1973, pp. 277-9), who classified them as Tyrolese, about 1500, with close parallels to the paintings on the altarpiece from Tramin by Hans Klocker, now in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich (Stange 1960, figs. 307-8), which he dated to about 1495 (Scheffler 1967, p. 138, no. 3; Müller 1976, p. 439 proposed a date of about 1485).
Egg (1985, pp. 121-48) published a survey of the artistic achievements in Brixen in the years immediately after Hans Klocker's death in about 1500, and suggested that the main workshops producing altarpieces were dominated by painters such as Nikolaus Stürhofer (active about 1490-1518), and Rupert Potsch (active about 1490 - about 1530), who sub-contracted sculptors from the former Klocker workshop. He ascribed to Stürhofer's workshop the highigh altarpiece in Saubach near Barbian (about 1500-1510) and the reliefs of St Mary Magdalene and St Agnes in the Castello Sforzesco in Milan (ibid., figs. 78, 80). Egg also associated Potsch's workshop with an altarpiece from Lajen near Klausen (about 1500-1510), now in the Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck (ibid., figs. 81-2), as well as the present altarpiece (ibid., p. 137). Potsch collaborated with the painter Philipp Diemer (active in Klausen and Brixen, d. 1516/17), and Egg ascribed the paintings on these altarpieces to Diemer. Egg also attributed to Potsch the altarpiece in the church of St James in Villnöss, dated 1517, although the paintings there were ascribed to Haug Spengler, who joined the workshop after Diemer's death in 1516/17 ( ibid., fig. 86).
Egg's attribution of the paintings of 192-1866 to Philipp Diemer, although speculative, seems convincing. The colour scheme and the facial features of the figure of St Catherine in the upper left wing of the Lajen altarpiece in particular are very similar to those of the Virgin Saint and St Agatha (?)/ St Beatrice (?) in the upper right wing of the present altarpiece. Egg also pointed out that some of the paintings reflect Martin Schongauer's engravings (St Catherine in the predella, Bartsch 1980, p, 271, no.65; St George and the Dragon on the bottom of the left wing, ibid., p. 259, no. 50; St Martin and the Beggar on the bottom of the right wing, ibid., p. 265, no. 56). The ascription of the sculpture, carved ornamental details and other decorative elements, such as canopies to named workshops remains problematic however. The two female saints in the Castello Sforzesco, for instance, ascribed by Egg to the Stürhofer workshop, are indeed closely linked with the figures of the Virgin in the reliefs of the present altarpiece. The quadrilobed ornamental leaves on the bases of the figures of the high altar in Saubach (ascribed to Stürhofer) are also found on the bases of St Florian and St John the Baptist in the present altarpiece and, on a slightly larger scale, on the base of the seated Virgin in the Vilnöss altarpiece of 1517, which Egg ascribed to the Potsch workshop. The canopies of both have the same structure and colour scheme as those of the altarpiece in Saubach. As Egg pointed out (ibid., p.133), many of the altarpieces made in Brixen in the first quarter of the sixteenth century still follow the formula of the altarpiece by Hans Klocker in Pinzon of about 1490/95 (ibid., figs. 53-54), which shows the seated Virgin with the Christ Child flanked by two saints in the corpus, two saints attached on either side, and a superstructure. In addition, the altarpiece by Klocker in the church of the Franciscans in Bozen (about 1495-1500) (ibid., fig. 57), the wings of which depict reliefs of Scenes from the Life of Christ, has a similar format (see also cat. nos. 63; 64). The statue of St Florian from a lost altarpiece in the church of St Ingenuin in Albuin (fig.* ), ascribed to the Klocker workshop (Scheffler 1967, p. 80) is similar to the figure of the same saint in the present altarpiece. The Albuin figure and the present altarpiece must be by the same sculptor, yet these works, although highly distinctive have not so far been stylistically linked with any other piece of sculpture from the Tyrol. This is probably due to the fact that only a small percentage of the estimated total of two thousand altarpieces in this region has survived (Egg 1985, pp.49-50), and a systematic examination of those which are intact or survived in fragments in churches and museums has not as yet been undertaken.
According to a verbal local tradition the present altarpiece is said to have come from the church of St Andrew in Klausen near Brixen (I am grateful to Karl Gruber, Brixen, and Helmuth Stampfer, Bozen, for this information). This church was rebuilt and extended between 1482 and 1498, and in 1506 Ruprecht Potsch and Philipp Diemer were commissioned to provide the high altarpiece, which was to have been completed by 1508; a document dated 1509 notes that the altarpiece was finished but mentions some faults, and work yet to be done: a coat of arms was to be provided, and the reverse of the altarpiece had yet to be painted with floral ornaments "auch hinten an der taffel vermallen mit gewächs" (documents fully quoted in Egg 1985, p.133). Unfortunately there is no mention of the iconographic programme of the altarpiece, but simply a reference to already agreed images: "und sullen die Pild machen wye in die(s) durch Richter, Pfarrer und Burger angezaygt, alles auf Inhald des Spanzedl" (they should make the images as described by the judges, clergy, and burghers, which are listed in the preliminary contract) [this earlier contract does not survive]. Although the size of the altarpiece makes it possible that it fitted into the choir of the church in Klausen, and the width of the predella (227cm) accords approximately with the width of the existing altar (237cm), there is no documentary evidence that the present altarpiece came from Klausen, and significantly St Andrew, the patron saint of the church, is omitted from the iconographical scheme.
Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)
Maskell 1911 p. 136-7, pl. XXI. Baum 1923, p. 66. Scheffler 1967, p. 89. Kauffmann 1973, pp. 277-9, no. 343. Baxandall 1974, pp. 36-40, no. 6. Müller 1976a, pp. 162-3. Egg 1985, p. 134. Imago lignea 1989, p. 184. European Sculpture 1996, pp. 108-9. Darrah 1998, pp.66-8.
Jopek, Norbert. German Sculpture 1430-1540: A Catalogue of the Collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London, 2002. pp. 137-145. cat. no. 65.
Inventory of Art Objects acquired in the Year 1866. Inventory of the Objects in the Art Division of the Museum at South Kensington, arranged According to the Dates of their Acquisition. Vol. 1. London : Printed by George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O., 1868., p. 30.
Perusini, Giuseppina. Altari Tedeschi dei Secoli XV e XVI nell'Agordino, nello Zoldano e nel Cadore. A Nord di Venezia: Pittura e Scultura nelle Vallate Dolomitiche tra Gotico e Rinascimento. pp. 288-289. fig. 8. Catalogue of exhibition held Palazzo Crepadona, Belluno, 2004-2005.
Trusted, Majorie. ed. The Making of Sculpture: the Materials and Techniques of European Sculpture. London: V&A Publications, 2007. p. 128. pl. 232.
Zimmermann, Eva. Die Mittelalterlichen Bildwerke. Karlsruche: Badisches Landesmuseum, 1985. p. 352.
Mary (Virgin Mary); Horse; Cross; Christianity; Book; Angel; Dragon; Shield; Sword; Saint; John (Saint John the Baptist); Column; Peter (Saint); Joseph (of Nazareth, Saint); Rose; Shepherd; Dove; Altar; Lamb; Ox; Paul (Saint); Town; The Christ Child; Chalice; Candlestick; Ass; Bear; Mitre; Palm leaf; Lance; Cushion; Bench; Dagger; Mail; Candle; St. Barbara; Alb; Wise Men; Wheel; George (Saint); Beggar; , Margaret (Saint); Amice; Simeon; Cope; Martin (Saint); Agatha (Saint); Dalmatic; Dorothy (Saint); Cleodolinda; Breastplate; Pauldrons; Florian (Saint); Blaise (Saint); Corbinian (Saint); Adalbert (Saint); Beatrice (Saint)
Sculpture; Black History