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Oil painting - Francis Williams, the Scholar of Jamaica

Francis Williams, the Scholar of Jamaica

  • Object:

    Oil painting

  • Date:

    ca. 1745 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Unknown (production)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Oil on canvas

  • Credit Line:

    Gift of Viscount Bearsted M.C. and Spink and Son Ltd. through the National Art Collections Fund, 1928.

  • Museum number:

    P.83-1928

  • Gallery location:

    British Galleries, room 52d, case WS

Object Type
The ability to commission a portrait painted in oil was regarded as a sure sign of achievement and social status. Many artists made their living from the ever-increasing demand for likenesses during the 18th century.

Subjects Depicted
Francis Williams was a Jamaican poet and a scholar. The painter of his portrait, who probably worked in Jamaica, has copied the style and format of European portraits. He or she must have seen examples of such pictures, or, more likely, prints reproducing them. There were conventions in representing scholarly men, and the artist has used several of them here. Williams is shown as a scholar in his book-lined study, with a globe of the world, and a celestial globe on the table. Dividers and other instruments are also strewn on the table. All this indicates that he has studied astronomy, mathematics and geography. A landscape, presumably of Spanish Town, Jamaica, is visible through the window, showing that Williams was resident there. It has been suggested that this portrait is a caricature of Williams because the painter has shown him with a large head and legs so thin that his stockings are wrinkled. However, Williams may have wanted to be shown in this manner to emphasise his intellectual rather than physical stature.

Physical description

Oil on canvas full-length portrait of the Jamaican scholar and writer Francis Williams, his heade slightly to the viewer's left, his body slightly to the viewer's right. He wears a grey powdered periwig, a long blue justacorps faced with yellow, a long grey waistcoat with gold lace at the buttonholes, dark blue breeches, loose grey stockings and buckle shoes. The accoutrements of his education and learning - a celestial and a territorial globe, dividers and other instruments - are clearly visible. Beautifully bound books line the shelves behind him, including works by Newton, Locke, Cowley, Sherlock and Rapin.and his left hand rests on an open book headed Newton's Philosophy. But while the painting clearly locates Francis within the tradition of European scholarship, it also - by virtue of the open window that reveals the sparkling landscape of Spanish Town, the beach and bright azure blue of the sky- sets him firmly within a Jamaican setting.

Date

ca. 1745 (made)

Artist/maker

Unknown (production)

Materials and Techniques

Oil on canvas

Dimensions

Height: 66 cm canvas, Width: 50.1 cm canvas

Object history note

Gift of Viscount Bearsted M.C. and Spink and Son Ltd. through the National Art Collections Fund, 1928.

Prov: Major H. Howard of Hampton Lodge, Seale, Farnham, direct descendant of Edward Long, author of 'A History of Jamaica'; purchased by Spink and Son Ltd. for £250 nad given to the V&A in 1928 on the condition at Viscount Lord Bearsted paid Spink and Son Ltd. £150.

This painting previously had the common title 'Francis Williams, The Negro Scholar of Jamaica'. The term 'negro' was used as the standard designation for a person of black (sub-Saharan) African origin or descent throughout the 17th to 19th century. However, since the 1960s, the term has fallen from usage and is considered offensive. It is only repeated here in its original historical context.

Descriptive line

Anonymous portrait of Francis Williams of of Jamaica, oil on canvas. By an unknown Jamaican, British or American painter, ca.1740.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Painting is the subject of a V&A web object story, 'Francis Williams - A Portrait of an Early Black Writer', [http://www.vam.ac.uk/collections/periods_styles/hiddenhistories/francisblackwriter/index.html]
Full text of V&A web object story 'Francis Williams: A Portrait of an Early Black Writer'

Francis Williams: A Portrait of an Early Black Writer

This is a portrait of Francis Williams, the first recorded black writer in the British Empire. It was painted around 1745 by an unknown artist, who was probably based in Jamaica. The artist has copied the style of formal European portraits, which he may have seen in the form of printed reproductions.

Francis Williams was born around 1700 to John and Dorothy Williams, a free black couple in Jamaica. John Williams had been freed by the will of his former master and within ten years was able to acquire property. As free blacks the Williams family were increasingly in the minority as Jamaica's sugar industry, which relied on the labour of enslaved Africans, grew over the course of the 18th century. Even less common were educated black people. However, John Williams' independent wealth ensured that Francis and his brothers received an education.

A story later evolved which suggested that Francis was the subject of a social experiment devised by the Duke of Montagu, who wished to show that black individuals - with the right education - could match the intellectual achievements of whites. The Duke is reported to have sponsored Francis to travel to England to undertake an English education at a grammar school and then at Cambridge University. However, Francis does not appear in the university's records and his family's wealth would have probably made the Duke's support unnecessary.

Francis was living in England at the time of his father's death in 1723. In Francis's absence John Williams had increased his personal wealth, which included land and slaves, through the export of sugar and tropical produce to England and the import of clothing for slaves and plantation supplies. Francis returned to Jamaica to take up his inheritance which he seems to have preferred to live off rather than to attempt to increase. At his death in 1762 the inventory of his goods, which consisted mainly of sixteen slaves, totaled £69419s. Jamaican currency (about £500 sterling).

Contemporary sources report that for several years Francis kept a school in Spanish Town, Jamaica, where he taught reading, writing, Latin and mathematics. However, it is his writing and poetry on which his later reputation is based. The only surviving work by him is a poem in Latin addressed to George Haldane on his assuming the governorship of Jamaica in 1759 (a popular convention). Francis may also have written the words of the song 'Welcome, welcome, brother debtor'.

The portrait in the V&A's collection presents Francis Williams as a scholar in his study. The evidence of Francis's learning and education are clearly visible, including a celestial and a territorial globe, dividers and other instruments. Beautifully-bound books line the shelves behind him and Francis's left hand rests on an open book headed 'Newton's Philosophy'. The portrait reflects the style of European portraits of the great and good but an open window, revealing a view (probably) of Spanish Town, locates Francis firmly in a Jamaican setting.

Some writers have suggested that the painting is a caricature of Francis as he has been depicted with a large head and skinny legs. Some of Francis's white contemporaries were scornful of his intellectual abilities, including Edward Long, Francis's fullest biographer, who described him as 'haughty, opinionated … [and with] the highest opinion of his own knowledge' (History of Jamaica, 1774). However, it is likely that Long was blinded by his own racial prejudice. Other critics have considered that the 'unnaturalistic' depiction may have been intended to emphasise the subject's intellectual skills over his physical stature (Francis was alive at the time of the painting's creation and may even have commissioned it). It may, more simply, be a reflection of the artist's limited skills.

Today, Francis William's status as a postcolonial 'hero' is made problematic by the fact that he and his family profited from the labour of enslaved Africans. However, his existence as a rich, educated free black man who wrote Latin verse was a direct challenge to the theories of white supremacy which underpinned the transatlantic slave trade.

The portrait was acquired by the V&A in 1928 partly because of the furniture and fittings depicted in it as well as 'the striking story connected with the individual whom it represents'. It was formerly in the collection of Walter Samuel, 2nd Viscount Bearsted, a collector of fine art and porcelain, and was acquired through The Art Fund.

Further reading
Edwards, Paul, and James Walvin. Black Personalities in the Era of the Slave Trade. 59. London: Macmillan, 1983

Gilmore, John. ‘Williams, Francis (c.1690-17600)’. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, 187-9. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. National Art Library pressmark: REF 920.041 DIC

Lindo, Locksley. ‘Francis Williams, a ‘Free’ Negro in a Slave World’. Savacou (1970), 75-81

MacDermot, T.H. ‘From a Jamaica Portfolio – Francis Williams’. Journal of Negro History (April 1917), 147-59

Ronnick, Michele Valerie. ‘Frances Williams: an Eighteenth-Century Tertium Quid’. Negro History Bulletin (April 1998)

Vincent Carretta, "Who Was Francis Williams?" Early American Literature, 38, no.2 (2003), pp. 213-37
James Robertson, Gone is the Ancient Glory: Spanish Town, Jamaica, 1534-2000 (Kingston, Jamaica, 2005), pp. 74-5
Country Life, 30 December 1928, illus
Reproduced with a quote from Edward Long's 'History of Jamaica', London 1774, vol. II, Book III, Chapter IV, p.475
The Connoisseur, XCIV, 1934, p.375
Reproduced
Ronnick, Michele Valerie, 'Francis Williams: An Eighteenth Century Tetium Quid', Negro History Bulletin; Washington, Apr-Jun 1998, vol.61, issue 2, pp.19-29

Labels and date

British Galleries:
Francis Williams (about 1710 - about 1770) was a mathematician and poet. He may have been educated in England. He set up a school in Spanish Town and his portrait shows him as a scholar in a study. This is a convention also used in the ivory relief of Matthew Raper, shown nearby. [27/03/2003]
Text written about this object for 'Uncomfortable Truths / Traces of the Trade' gallery trails (Trail 3: 'Britain & The West Indies'), 20 February - 31 December 2007. Helen Mears & Janet Browne (with additional interpretation provided by actor Rudolph Walker).

'PORTAIT OF FRANCIS WILLIAMS / Francis Williams was born around 1700 to John and Dorothy Williams, a free couple who within ten years of being given their freedom had amassed significant property and wealth through Jamaica's sugar industry. When his father died in 1723, Francis inherited a substantial fortune, including land, trading interests and slaves, but he preferred to live off his inheritance than attempt to increase it. Although to modern eyes Francis is compromised by his profiting from enslaved Africans, he is also a notable example of a rich, free black man who wrote Latin verse and enjoyed a European lifestyle.

The portrait presents Francis as a scholar in his study. The accoutrements of his education and learning - a celestial and a territorial globe, dividers and other instruments - are clearly visible. Beautifully bound books line the shelves behind him, and his left hand rests on an open book headed Newton's Philosophy. But while the painting clearly locates Francis within the tradition of European scholarship, it also - by virtue of the open window that reveals the sparkling landscape of Spanish Town - sets him firmly within a Jamaican setting.

'Notice the European setting of the painting, the representation of the "exotic" background also. Remember too, that black people over the centuries held prominent roles within British society.'

Rudolph Walker OBE' [20/02/2007]

Materials

Canvas; Oil paint

Techniques

Oil painting

Subjects depicted

Scholar; Library; Globes; Jamaica; Williams, Francis

Categories

Black History; Paintings; Portraits

Collection code

PDP

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