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Roundel

Roundel

  • Date:

    ca. 1520-1530 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Breu, Jorg the elder (designer)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Clear glass with black pigment and silver stain

  • Museum number:

    604-1872

  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

This stained glass roundel was made after a design by the artist Jorg Breu the Elder who lived and worked in Augsburg in southern Germany from around 1475 to 1537. He is known to have painted altarpieces, panels and murals and to have designed book illustrations and stained glass. A number of his stained glass designs survive. Breu specialised in the production of monochrome glass roundels (painted simply in a black pigment with yellow (silver) stain added) and his designs were used throughout the 16th century.

This roundel depicts Coquinaria (the art of cooking) which is one of the 'Seven Mechanical Arts'. These seven Mechanical Arts (artes mechanicae) emerged as a complement to the academic seven Liberal Arts (artes liberales) first in the writings of John Scotus in the 9th century. By the 12th century, in the writings of Hugh of St Victor, cooking was included as one of these mechanical arts. It is known that Breu also designed roundels depicting Vestaria (weaving), Milicia (the military arts), Metalaria (metalworking), Venatio (hunting), Mercatura (mercantile art) and Architectura.

The stained glass design for this roundel is in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung Munchen.

Physical description

Round panel of clear glass, painted on the inside with grey/black pigment and on the exterior with silver (yellow) stain). Six men are gathered in a kitchen underneath an arched roof. On the left there is a man with his back to the viewer, wearing an apron and holding a long-handled strainer. He raises a spoon to his mouth as if to taste the cooking. In the centre, another aproned man holds a long-handled ladle and a curved knife is tucked into his apron strings. On the left of the roundel a fire is blazing and placed within it and attached to rachets is a large cooking pot. Various other items, such as a mortar and pestle, indicate that this is a scene within a kitchen.

Date

ca. 1520-1530 (made)

Artist/maker

Breu, Jorg the elder (designer)

Materials and Techniques

Clear glass with black pigment and silver stain

Marks and inscriptions

Coquinaria
Art of Cooking

Dimensions

Height: 26.2 cm display frame, Width: 26.2 cm display frame, Depth: 3.0 cm display frame, Diameter: 21.7 cm sight

Object history note

Jorg Breu the Elder lived and worked in Augsburg in southern Germany from around 1475 to 1537. He is known to have painted altarpieces, panels, murals and designed book illustrations and stained glass. A number of his stained glass designs survive. He specialised in the production of monochrome roundels. His designs were used throughout the 16th century.

The stained glass design for this roundel is in the Staatliche Graphische Sammlung Munchen.

Historical context note

The Seven Mechanical Arts (artes mechanicae) emerged as a complement to the academic Seven Liberal Arts (artes liberales) first in the writings of John Scotus in the 9th century. By the 12th century, in the writings of Hugh of St Victor, cooking was included as one of these mechanical arts. It is known that Breu also designed roundels depicting Vestaria (weaving), Milicia (the military arts), Metalaria (metalworking), Venatio (hunting), Mercatura (mercantile art) and Architectura.

Descriptive line

Roundel of clear glass painted in brown/black pigment and silver (yellow) stain. Depicting the Art of Cooking from a series of roundels illustrating the Seven Mechanical Arts. Made from a stained glass design by Jorg Breu the Elder. German, probably Augsburg, c.1520-30.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Ernst Buchner and Karl Feuchtmayer, eds., Augsburger Kunst der Spatgotik und Renaissance, Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Kunst Series, vol.2, Augsburg, 1928
From a Mighty Fortress: prints, drawings and books in the age of Luther, 1483-1546, edited by Christiane Andersson, Detroit Institute of Arts, 1983
Andrew Morrall, "Die Zeichnungen fur den Monatszyklys von Jorg Breu d. A., Maler und Glashandwerker im Augsburg des 16. Jahrhunderts", in Kurzweil viel ohn Mass und Zeil: Alltag und Festag auf denh Augsburger Monatsbildern der Renaissance, ed. Hartmut Boockmann and Pia Maria Gruber, 128-47, Munich, 1994
Hermann Schmitz, Die Glasgemalde des koniglichen Kunstgewerbemuseums in Berlin: Mit einer Einfuhrung in die Geschichte der deutschen Glasmalerei, 2 vols., Berlin, 1913
Bernard Rackham, A Guide to the Collections of Stained Glass, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1936
Stained Glass before 1700 in American Collections: Silver-Stained Roundels and Unipartite Panels. Studies in the History of Art Series, vol.39, Monograph Series I, by Timothy B. Husband and Madeline H. Caviness, Washington D.C., 1991
Susan Foister, Art of Light: German Renaissance Stained Glass, The National Gallery, London, 2007
Foister, Susan, Art of Light: German Renaissance Stained Glass(London: National Gallery Company, 2007), 32 p., ill., ISBN 978 185709 348 3. p. 10.

Production Note

after a stained glass design by Jorg Breu the Elder

Materials

Glass

Techniques

Painting; Staining

Subjects depicted

Fire; Art of Cooking; Cooks; Cooking; Seven Mechanical Arts; Kitchen

Categories

Stained Glass

Collection

Ceramics Collection

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