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  • Place of origin:

    Augsburg (made)

  • Date:

    1580-1590 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Kleebühler, Paul I (Goldsmith)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Silver-gilt and rock crystal, raised, engraved, gilded, cast and carved.

  • Museum number:


  • Gallery location:

    Europe 1600-1815, Room 6, The Lisa and Bernard Selz Gallery, case CA11

Physical description

The cross is formed of sections of rock crystal, mounted in silver-gilt. The foot, mounts, cherubs on the arms of the cross and the plaque above Christ's head are all gilded (probably re-gilt); the figure of Christ is parcel-gilt. The mounts are engraved with simple designs of flowers and foliage; the foot of the cross is shaped as a quatrefoil. In the four lobes at the base of the cross, a simple symmetrical floral and leaf pattern alternates with a simple pattern of interlace. Round the edge of the base are simple strapwork motifs; the rim of the foot has a punched dot design which imitates matting interspersed with a simple strapwork motif. The figure of Christ and the plaque at the head of the cross may be later (1615-20); the two small cherubs may also be later additions.

Place of Origin

Augsburg (made)


1580-1590 (made)


Kleebühler, Paul I (Goldsmith)

Materials and Techniques

Silver-gilt and rock crystal, raised, engraved, gilded, cast and carved.

Marks and inscriptions

'I[esus] N[azarenus] R[ex] I[udeorum]'
Latin, 'Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews'
Stamped on the plaque attached to the vertical shaft of the cross, above Christ's head.

Pinecone in a circle-shaped punch.
Assay mark for the town of Augsburg, for the years 1580-90. Stamped in one of the lobes on the base of the cross.

A ?plant with three stems, each with a flower, growing on a low mound, in a circle-shaped punch.
Probably the maker's mark of Paul I Kleebühler (d. 1623). Stamped next to the town mark in one of the lobes on the base of the cross.

Zig-zag assay mark on the underside of the foot ring.


Height: 41.2 cm Base to top of cross, Width: 17.4 cm Width of arms of the cross, including mounts, Depth: 11.2 cm Base of cross, Weight: 795.4 g Cross (entire object)

Object history note

Nothing is know of the early history of this object. The cross was purchased from Mr J. Lowe of Wardour St, London, in 1910 for the sum of £150.

Descriptive line

Silver-gilt and rock crystal, German (Augsburg), 1580-90, town mark of Augsburg and maker's mark, probably Paul I Kleebühler, punched on foot.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Seling, Helmut. Die Kunst der Augsburger Goldschmiede, 1529-1868: Meister, Marken, Werke. Munich, Beck, 1980. ISBN 3406057292 (set).

Labels and date

1. Cross
GERMAN, Augsburg; around 1620
Rock-crystal and silver, parcel gilt

The large size indicates that it stood in a prominent
position on the altar for the service of the mass. The body of the cross is made of a highly prized and rare material, rock crystal.

M.459-1910 [1980-1990]


Silver; Silver-gilt; Rock crystal


Christianity; Ecclesiastical Art/Craft; Metalwork; Religion


Metalwork Collection

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