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St. Paul and St. Barnabas at Lystra

  • Object:

    Print

  • Place of origin:

    Paris (made)

  • Date:

    ca. 1700 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Audran, Gérard, born 1640 - died 1703 (print-maker)
    Raphael, born 1483 - died 1520 (artist)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    etching and engraving on paper

  • Credit Line:

    Bequeathed by Rev. Alexander Dyce

  • Museum number:

    DYCE.2475

  • Gallery location:

    Prints & Drawings Study Room, level C, case 3H, shelf DR, box 5

This picture represents the moment when the people of Lystra, impressed when Saints Paul and Barnabas heal a cripple (seen on the right), mistake them as gods Mercury and Jupiter and prepare to make sacrifices in their honour before Paul and Barnabas beg them to stop.

This print is in reverse of the Cartoon from which it is derived. The so-called Raphael Cartoons are seven full size designs for tapestries by the great Italian Renaissance artist Raphael (1483-1520). They illustrate passages from the Bible concerning the lives of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. None of them is smaller than ten feet high by thirteen feet wide. They belong to Her Majesty the Queen and have been on loan to this museum since 1865. The earliest print relating to the Raphael Cartoons dates from 1516, the year in which Raphael received final payment for the commission. It inaugurates an extraordinary case study in the history of printmaking, stretching over more than four hundred and fifty years and across a wide range of printmaking techniques.

The Cartoons had been cut up into vertical strips, for reasons to do with the manufacture of tapestries, probably in Brussels. They were reassembled and put up on the walls of the King's Gallery at Hampton Court for the first time in June 1697. They were taken down again for part of 1699 to allow for alterations to the ceilings, doors and panelling, resulting in the arrangement seen in later prints by Gribelin. Their installation at Hampton Court marked their transformation from designs to be used in making tapestries into exhibited works of art. This print and its companion 'The Death of Ananias' (Dyce 2473) are the earliest prints which can truly be said to be "of the Cartoons".

This print and its pair are the only two Cartoon prints which Audran executed before his death in 1703. According to George Vertue they were produced in Paris from copies of the Cartoons made by the painter Charles Jervas (ca. 1675-1739). These copies belonged to William III's Secretary at War in Ireland and Jervas' patron, George Clarke (1661-1736). When Jervas stopped in Paris on his way to Rome on a trip funded by Clarke, he seems to have proposed to Audran the engraving of his Cartoon copies. Gérard Audran was an acclaimed French engraver responsible for prints of history paintings by artists such as Charles Le Brun and Nicholas Poussin. At this date theire was no Englilsh engraver, or French engraver resident in England, capable of producing prints on this scale or level of linear complexity.

Physical description

In a town centre square with classical buildings a crowd has gathered to watch a sacrifice of two bulls and a ram. In the centre a man raises an axe to kill the bull standing in the centre. To the right, Saints Paul and Barnabas stand on a raised platform and there is a square plinth (altar) ornamented with carved festoons, angels, rams heads, animals a jug and a medallion. Behind this stand two boys, one playing pipes and the other holding a decorated box. In the background is a statue of Mercury on a plinth and behind is a landscape with more buildings. Front left a man has thrown away his crutches.

This image in in reverse of the cartoon from which it is derived but is faithful in compositional detail.

Place of Origin

Paris (made)

Date

ca. 1700 (made)

Artist/maker

Audran, Gérard, born 1640 - died 1703 (print-maker)
Raphael, born 1483 - died 1520 (artist)

Materials and Techniques

etching and engraving on paper

Marks and inscriptions

Saint Paul et Saint Barnabé preschent et font des miracles en la Ville de Lystre / Le Peuple les croit des Dieux et vent les adorer, mais à la suscitation des Juifs ils chassent St. Paul hors de la Ville, le lapident et le laissent pour mort. Actes. Ch. 16.
Below image

Mox adorant, Mox Lapidant
Below image

Ce Peuple les Adore, et va les lapider

Dimensions

Height: 56.8 cm approx, trimmed, Width: 67.5 cm approx, trimmed

Descriptive line

St. Paul and Barnabas at Lystra; from a cartoon by Raphael for the tapestries in the Sistine Chapel; etching and engraving by Gérard Audran; French School; c.1700.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

DYCE COLLECTION. A Catalogue of the Paintings, Miniatures, Drawings, Engravings, Rings and Miscellaneous Objects Bequeathed by The Reverend Alexander Dyce. London : South Kensington Museum : Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O., 1874.
Le Blanc, Charles. Manuel de l'Amateur d'Estampes. Paris, 1854-6.
Miller, Liz. 'From Marcantonio Raimondi to the Postcard: Prints of the Raphael Cartoons'. Display leaflet, 1995.
Shearman, John. Raphael's Cartoons in the collection of Her Majesty the Queen and the tapestries for the Sistine Chapel. London, Phaidon, 1972.
Fermor, Sharon. The Raphael Tapestry Cartoons: Narrative, Decoration, Design. London, Scala Books in association with the Victoria and Albery Museum.

Labels and date

This print and its pair are the only two Cartoon prints which Audran executed before his death in 1703. According to George Vertue they were produced in Paris from copies of the Cartoons made by the painter Charles Jervas (ca. 1675-1739). These copies belonged to William III's Secretary at War in Ireland and Jervas' patron, George Clarke (1661-1736). When Jervas stopped in Paris on his way to Rome on a trip funded by Clarke, he seems to have proposed to Audran the engraving of his Cartoon copies. Gérard Audran was an acclaimed French engraver responsible for prints of history paintings by artists such as Charles Le Brun and Nicholas Poussin. At this date theire was no Englilsh engraver, or French engraver resident in England, capable of producing prints on this scale or level of linear complexity. [1995]

Materials

Paper; Printing ink

Techniques

Etching (printing process); Engraving (printing process)

Subjects depicted

Angels; Miracle; Crowd scenes; Plinth; Landscapes (representations); Raphael Cartoons; Townscapes (representations); Festoons; Altar; Ornament; Rams (animals); Axe; Columns (architectural elements); Medallions (ornament areas); Bulls (animal); Healing; Classical statues; Sandals; Boxes (containers); Clothing, Costume

Categories

Prints; Religion; Christianity

Collection

Prints, Drawings & Paintings Collection

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