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Pinacotheca Hamptoniana

  • Object:

    Print

  • Place of origin:

    London (published)
    Italy (printed)
    London (printed)
    Britain (binding)

  • Date:

    1719 (published)
    1725-1750 (bookbinding)
    1705-1719 (printed)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Dorigny, Nicholas Sir, born 1658 - died 1746 (maker)
    Raphael, born 1483 - died 1520 (artist)
    Volterra, Daniele da, born 1509 - died 1566 (artist)
    Bickham, George I the elder (engraver)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Engraving and etching on paper, bound in volume, gold-tooled binding

  • Museum number:

    E.656-1996

  • Gallery location:

    Prints & Drawings Study Room, level D, case LP, shelf 20

This book of engravings reproduces in reverse the so-called Raphael Cartoons, seven full size designs for tapestries by the great Italian Renaissance artist Raphael (1483-1520). The cartoons illustrate passages from the Bible concerning the lives of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. None of them is smaller than ten feet high by thirteen feet wide. They belong to Her Majesty the Queen and have been on loan to this museum since 1865. The earliest print relating to the Raphael Cartoons dates from 1516, the year in which Raphael received final payment for the commission. It inaugurates an extraordinary case study in the history of printmaking, stretching over more than four hundred and fifty years and across a wide range of printmaking techniques.

Nicholas Dorigny's prints were the subject of an editorial in the 'Spectator' on the 19th November 1711. "These invaluable pieces are very justly in the Hands of the greatest and most pious sovereign in the World; and cannot be the frequent object of every one at their own leisure; but an engraver is to a painter, what a printer is to an author it is worthy Her Majesty's name, that she has encouraged that noble artist Monsieur Dorigny to publish these works of Raphael." Writing in 1722 about the works of Raphael in Rome, Jonathan Richardson said "That I should write upon what I never saw may appear strange to some; Such may please only to observe that My remarks are chiefly upon the way of thinking itself."

The engraver and antiquarian George Vertue had met and spoken with Dorigny. Vertue records that "several gentlemen of note travelling to Rome there found Mr Dorigny who was then in the highest reputation for several engraved works after Raphael. These got him justly the reputation of the first engraver in Europe for which reason several Curious persons persuaded & engaged him to come to England to undertake those Famous Cartons at Hampton Court painted by Raphael...From his coming to England [in 1711] I may justly date the rise of the reputation of the engraving."

The first proposal was that Dorigny engrave the Cartoons for the exclusive use of Queen Anne as presents for the nobility and visiting diplomats. Dorigny's price for the work of £4000-£5000 meant this idea was quashed and the prints were sold by subscription at four guineas a set. Dorigny was provided with limited royal patronage in the form of lodgings at Hampton Court, coals, and a bottle of wine a day.

The lettering in this set of prints is entirely in Latin underlining how they were aimed at an elite educated market. Listed are the titles, biblical quotations, details of the lcoations of the Cartoons and their sizes.

Queen Anne had died while Dorigny was still at work. On the first of April 1719 Dorigny presented to King George I two sets of his newly completed prints of the Cartoons. On the 13th June 1720 Dorigny received a knighthood. He was the first of only two individuals in the history of British art to be knighted for having made particular prints. The other was Sir Robert Strange, knighted in 1787 for an engraving of Benjamin West's 'Apotheosis of the Princes Octavius and Alfred'.

Physical description

Book containing etchings and engravings organised as double page spreads, each blank on reverse. Order of plates: 1. Title-page to Pinacotheca Hamptoniana; 2-7 the Raphael Cartoons - The Miraculous Draught of Fishes, Christ's Charge to Peter, The Healing of the Lame Man, The Death of Ananias, The Blinding of Elymas, The Sacrifice at Lystra. Two additional plates by Dorigny, The Descent from the Cross (Deposition) and The Transfiguration, follow at the end.

The engravings are in reverse of the cartoons from which they are derived but faithfully reproduce the compositional details of the originals.

Bound in Russian leather gilt tooled in "Harleian" style with a central lozenge made up of many small tools. The boards decorated at the edges with a border of three rolls, the central one of insects. The binding is lettered on the spine in capitals 'Raphael's Cartoons'. A bookplate of Frances Mary Richardson Currer (1765-1861) is stuck inside the front board.

The Deposition signed Eq. Nicolaus Dorigny del. et Sculp., dated 1710 and lettered with artist's name and dedication and Romae cum priu. S. Pont. et Reg. Chr.

Place of Origin

London (published)
Italy (printed)
London (printed)
Britain (binding)

Date

1719 (published)
1725-1750 (bookbinding)
1705-1719 (printed)

Artist/maker

Dorigny, Nicholas Sir, born 1658 - died 1746 (maker)
Raphael, born 1483 - died 1520 (artist)
Volterra, Daniele da, born 1509 - died 1566 (artist)
Bickham, George I the elder (engraver)

Materials and Techniques

Engraving and etching on paper, bound in volume, gold-tooled binding

Marks and inscriptions

Watermark: double headed eagle

Raphael's Cartoons
lettered on spine in capitals

G. Bickham for: et sculp.
left side of lower margin plate 1

Pinacotheca Hamptoniana / GEORGIO / Mag: Brit: Fran: et Hiber: / Regi / Septem de Actis Apostolorum Tabulas superstites ex pluribus quas, duobus circiter ab / hinc seculis, jussu Leonis X. Pont. Rom, Raphael Sancius Urbanas Pictorum facile Princeps / coloribus aqua dilutis pinxit in chartis in Aulaeorum texturam: Multosq: post annos / Rex Carolus Primus, is suadente Petro Paulo Rubens Equite, magno pretio emptas, ex / Flandria ubi praefata Autoea confecta fuerunt, in Angliam advehi jussit: Deinde vero / Gulielmus Rex (ut opus tam insigne, toto jam Orbe celeberrimum, praecipuumq; in hoc / genere Regni ornamentum, debita gauderet majestate) in Palatio Hampton-Court dicto, XII. / a Londino passuum millibus, in perpetuum conservandas fixit: Eas demum, favente, quin / et preoposita praemij spe, excitante Regina Anna, maxima qua potuit diligentia delineatas, et / Inclytae Nationis Britannicae de se optime meritae, bonarumq, Artium amantissimae gratia aere / incisas / Optimo, et Munificentissimo / Principi / Sub cujus felicibus auspicijs tam arduus, Septem Scilicet annorum, labor ad finem / tandem perductus est / Humillime offert, et dedicat / Eq. Nicolaus Dorigny
plate 1

1
Plate number lower right, plate 1

Raphael Sanctius Urbinas Pinxit
left side of lower margin on all plates 2-8, sometimes the U or Urbinas is inscribed as a V (plates 2, 5, 6 and 8) and p in pinxit is lower case (plates 3, 4, 6 and 7)

Eq. Nicolaus Dorigny Gallus Del. & Sculp.
right side of lower margin on all plates 2-8, sometimes the s in Sculp. is inscribed lower case (plates 3,4 and 7)

MIRACVLOSA AD STAGNVM GENEZARETH PISCIVM CAPTVRA.
Title lower margin, centred, plate 2

Vt cessavit autem loqui (scilicet IESVS) dixit ad Simonem, duc in altum, et laxate retia vestra in capturam. Et respondens Simon, dixit illi, Praeceptor, per totam noctem laborantes, nihil ceptimus; in verbo autem tuo laxabo rete. Et cum hoc fecissent, concluserunt piscium multitu-/ dinem copiosam, rumpebantur autem rete eorum. Et annuerunt sociis qui erant in alia navi ut venirent et adjuvarent eos. Et venerunt et impleverunt ambas naviculas, ita ut pene mergerentur. Quod cum videret Simon Petrus, procidit ad genua IESV, dicens, Exi a me, / quia homo peccator sum Domine. Lucae Cap. V.
Lower margin, plate 2

Exemplar asservatur in Palatio MAG. BRIT. REG. dicto HAMPTON-COVRT Long. ped. 13. pol. 1 1/2. Alt. ped. 10. pol. 6.
Lower margin centred below rest of text, plate 2

2
Plate number lower right, plate 2

CHRISTUS PETRO OVIUM CURAM COMMITTIT.
Title lower margin, centred, plate 3

hoc iam tertio manifestatus est JESUS discipulis Suis, cum resurrexisset a mortuis. Cum ergo prandissent, dixit Simoni Petro JESUS: Simon Joannis diligis me plus his? dixit ei: etiam Domine, tu feis quia amo te. Dicit ei: Pasce agnos meos. Docit ei iterum: / Simon Joannis diligis me? Ait illi: etiam Domine, tu feis quia amo te. Dicit ei: Pasce agnos meos. Docit ei tertio: Simon Joannis amas me? Contristatus est Ptrus, quia dixit ei terio, amas me? Et dixit ei, Domine tu omnia nosti: tu feis quia amo / te. Dixit ei: Pasce oves meas. Joan: cao: XXI.
Lower margin, plate 3

Exemplar asservatur in Palatio MAG. BRIT. REG. dicto HAMPTON-COVRT Long. ped. 14. pol. 7. alt. ped. 11. pol. 4.
Lower margin centred below rest of text, plate 3

3
Plate number lower right, plate 3

PETRUS CUM JOANNE CLAUDUM A MATRIS UTERO SANAT.
Title lower margin, centred, plate 4

Petrus autem, et Joannes ascendebant in templum, ad horam orationis nonam. Et quidam vir qui erat claudus ex utero matris suae, bajulabatur: quem ponebant quotidie ad portam templi, quae dicitur speciosa, ut peteret eleemosynam ab introeuntibus in templum. Is cum / vidisset Petrum et Joannem incipientes introire in templum, rogabat ut ut eleemosunam acciperet. Intuens autem in eum Petrus cum Joanne, dixit: respice in nos. At ille intendebat in eos, sperans se aliquid accepturum ab eis. Petrus autem dixit: Argentum, et-/ aurum non est mihi: quod autem habeo, hoc tibi do: In nomine Jesu Christi Nazareni surge, et ambula et apprehensa manu ejus dextera, allevavit eum. Et protinus consoldatae sunt nbases ejus, et plantae. Act. apost. III.
Lower margin, plate 4

Exemplar asservatur in Palatio MAG. BRIT. REG. dicto HAMPTON-COVRT Long. ped. 18. alt. ped. 11. pol. 4.
Lower margin centred below rest of text, plate 4

4
Plate number lower right, plate 4

ANANIAS CORRUVIT EXANIMIS.
Title lower margin, centred, plate 5

Vir autem quidam nimine Ananias, cum Saphira uxore sua, vendidit agrum, et fraudavit de pretio agri, conscia uxore sua: et afferens quamdam partem, ad pedes Apostolorum posuit. Dixit autem Petrus: Anania, cur tentavit Satanas cortuum, mentiri te Spiritui Sancto, et fraudare / de pretio agri? Non ne manens tibi manebat, et venundatum in tua erat potestate? Quare posuisti in corde tuo hanc rem? Non es mentilus hominibus sed Deo. Audiens autem Ananias haec verba, cecidit, et expiravit. Et factus est timor magnus super omnes qui audierunt. Act. Ap. Cap. V.
Lower margin, plate 5

Exemplar asservatur in Palatio MAG. BRIT. REG. dicto HAMPTON-COVRT Long. ped. XVII. pol. VI. alt. ped. X1. pol. IV.
Lower margin centred below rest of text, plate 5

5
Plate number lower right, plate 5

L. SERGIVS PAVLVS / ASIAE PROCONSVL / CHRISTIANAM FIDEM / AMPLECTITVR / SAVLI PRAEDICATIONE
Inscribed on stone podium centre of image, plate 6

BAR-IESV SIVE ELYMAS PAPHI AS SAVLI VERBVM EXCAECATVR.
Title lower margin, centred, plate 6

Et cum perambulassent, (scilicet Saulus et Barnabas) universam insulam usque ad Paphum, invenerunt quemdam virum magum pseudoprophetam, judaeum, cui nomen erat Bar Jesu qui erat cum Proconsule Sergio Paulo viro prudente; hic accersitis / Barnaba et Saulo, desiderabat audire verbum Dei, Resistebat autem illis Elymas magus (sicenim interpretatur nomen ejus) quaerens avertere Proconsulem a fide. Saulus autem, qui et Paulus, repletus Spiritu Sancto, intuens in eum, dixit, O plene omni dolo- / et omni fallacia, fili diaboli, inimice omnis justitia, non desinis subvertere vias Domini rectas. Et nunc ecce manus Domini superte, et eris coecus non videns Solem usque ad tempus. Et confestim cecidit in eum caligo et tenerbrae, et circuiens querebat / qui ei manum daret. Act. Apost. XIII.
Lower margin, plate 6

6
Plate number lower right, plate 6

PAULUS ET BARNABAS LYSTRE
Title lower margin, centred, plate 7

Et quidam vir Lystris infirmus pedibus sedebat, claudus ex utero matris suae, qui nunquam ambulaverat. Hic audivit Paulum loquentem. Qui intuitus eum, et videns quia fidem haberat ut salvus fieret, dixit magna voce, Surge Super pedes tuos rectus. Et exilivit et / ambulabat. Turbae autem cum vidissent quuod fecerat Paulus, Levaverunt vocem suam Lycaonice dicentes, Dij similes facti hominibus descenderunt ad nos. Et vocabant Barnabam Jovem: Paulum vero mercurium, quoniam ipse erat dux verbi. Sacerdos quoque Jovis / qui erat ante civitatem, tauros, et coronas ante Januas afferens, cum populis volebat sacrificare. Quod cum audierunt Apostoli Barnabas et Paulus conscissis tunicis suis exilierunt in turbas. &c. Act. Apos. XIIII.
Lower margin, plate 7

7
Plate number lower right, plate 7

PAVLVS PRAEDICANS IN AREOPAGO.
Title lower margin, centred, plate 8

Stans autem Paulus in medio Arcopagi, ait: Viri Athenienses per omnia quaisi Superstitiosiores vos video. Praeteriens enim, et videns Simulachra vestra, inveni et aram in qua Scriptum erat: IGNOTO DEO. Quod ergo / ignorantes colitis, hoc ego annuntio vobis. Deus qui fecit mundum, et omnia quae in eo sunt. Act. Apost. Cap. XVIII.
Lower margin, plate 8

Exemplar asservatur in Palatio MAG. BRIT. REG. dicto HAMPTON-COVRT Long. ped. 14. pol. 7. Alt. ped. 11. pol. 4.
Lower margin centred below rest of text, plate 8

8
Plate number lower right, plate 8

Excellentis.mo Nobilis.mo q; Viro D.D. / Marchioni d'Antin, Regiorum Exercituum Legato Generali, / Aurelianensis Proregi, Arcis et Vrbis Ambasiae Praeposito, / Regiorum Aedificio =
Lower left below image, plate 9

Daniel Ricciarelli Volaterramis pinx. Romae in Aedibus ss.mae Trin. in monte Pincio. / Eq. Nicolaus Dorigny del. et Sculp. Romae cum prin. S. Pont. et Reg. Chr. 1720[or 1710?]
Lower left corner, plate 9

Ludovico Antonio de Gondrin superioris ac inferioris Alsatiae Praefecto, Aureliae et Provinciae, Serenissimi Delphini è Proceribus, Supremo- / rum Moderatori.
Lower right below image, plate 9

Humillime D.D.D.
Lower right below image, plate 9

obsequentissimus et addictissimus servus Nicolais Dorigny Eq.
Lower right corner below image, plate 9

Raphael Sanctius Vrbinas pinxit Romae in aedibus Diui Petri in Monte Aureo
Lower left corner below image, plate 10

Sereniss.mo Principi PHILIPPO / LUDOVICI MAGNI ab unico
Lower left below image, plate 10

humillime D.D.D.
Lower centre below image and inscription, plate 10

Eq. Nicolaus Dorigny gallus delin. et Sculp. Romae Anne 1705.
Lower right corner below image, plate 10

Aurelianensium Duci / Fratre Unico Nepoti
Lower right below image, plate 10

obseq. et addict. Seruus Nicolaus Dorigny. Eq.
Lower right below image and inscription, plate 10

cum priu. S. Pont. et Reg. Christi.
Lower right corner below image, plate 10

RAPHAEL'S CARTOONS
Binding lettered on spine

Dimensions

Height: 62 cm volume, Width: 48.8 cm volume, Depth: 2.5 cm volume, Height: 60.7 cm double-page spread, Width: 89.4 cm double-page spread

Object history note

From departmental notes:

'A note in pencil on the front of the volume probably dating from the early twentieth century claims on the basis of the style of the binding and the fact that Edward Harly, Earl of Oxford (1689-1741) was one of Dorigny's patrons that this volume from his library. This is not necessarily the case.'

Historical context note

Set of prints of the Raphael Cartoons in 18th century binding by Sir Nicholas Dorigny. Subscriber's set of Pinacotheca Hamptoniana, the Raphael Cartoons, The Deposition after Daniele da Volterra and the Transfiguration after Raphael (B.N. Fonds 100-107, 95, 89)

Descriptive line

Subscriber's set of Pinacotheca Hamptoniana by Sir Nicholas Dorigny (1657-1746), from cartoons by Raphael for the tapestries in the Sistine Chapel, etching and engraving, British, 1719, in an 18th century binding

The V&A holds two other sets of the Pinacotheca Hamptoniana; see Museum Nos. 20282 to 20289 and Dyce.2560 to Dyce.2566.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

pp. 153-194
Hunt, Richard William, Philip, Ian Gilbert and Richard Julian Roberts eds. Studies in the book trade : in honour of Graham Pollard. Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society, 1975. 403p., ill. ISBN 0901420301.
Dorigny, Nicholas. Pinacotheca Hamptoniana. London, 1719.
Shearman, John. Raphael's cartoons in the collection of Her Majesty the Queen, and the tapestries for the Sistine Chapel. London: Phaidon Press Ltd, 1972. 258p., ill. ISBN 0714814504.
Fermor, Sharon. The Raphael tapestry cartoons : narrative, decoration, design . London: Scala Books in association with the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1996.
pp. 27-30, figs. 12 and 16
Meyer, Arline. Apostles in England : Sir James Thornhill & the legacy of Raphael's tapestry cartoons. New York: Miriam & Ira Wallach Art Gallery, Columbia University in the City of New York, 1996. 86p., ill. ISBN: 1884919022.
Victoria and Albert Museum Department of Prints, Drawings and Paintings Accession Register for 1996

Production Note

The prints of the Raphael Cartoons lack the lettering 'Eq', present on the other two prints, signifying the knighthood bestowed on Dorigny as a reward for engraving the Cartoons. This suggests that the prints of the Cartoons are a set issued to a subscriber for four guineas before the knighthood was awarded, whereas the other two prints in the volume are later impressions of these prints, printed some years after they were originally engraved, and after Dorigny had received his knighthood.

Materials

Paper

Techniques

Engraving; Etching

Subjects depicted

Key to Heaven; Ladders; Laurel crown; Boots; Raphael Cartoons; Drapes; Shoes (footwear); Foliation (pattern); Putti; Rotundas; Arches; Fish; Healing; Boxes (containers); Sheep; Book; Lamps (lighting devices); Classical statues; Townscapes (representations); Flowers (plants); Sacrifice; Niche; Birds; Clothing, Costume; Palace; Columns (architectural elements); Fishing vessels; Pincers; Spiral columns; Crowd scenes; Axe; Shells; Altar; Landscapes (representations); Sandals; Throne; Trophies (motif); Ram; Soldiers; Miracle; Ornament; Fishermen (people); Bulls (animal); Interior views; Scrolls

Categories

Prints; Religion; Christianity; Architectural fittings; Designs; Printmaking techniques

Collection

Prints, Drawings & Paintings Collection

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