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  • Object:


  • Place of origin:

    Germany (made)

  • Date:

    1968-1970 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Nees, Georg, born 1926 - died 2016 (artist)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Lithograph on paper

  • Credit Line:

    Given by the Computer Arts Society, supported by System Simulation Ltd, London

  • Museum number:


  • Gallery location:

    Prints & Drawings Study Room, room 315, case R, shelf 2, box R

Georg Nees (born 1926, Nuremberg) is considered one of the founders of computer art and graphics. He was also one of the first people to exhibit his computer graphics, at the studio gallery of the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart in February 1965.

Nees studied mathematics and physics at the universities of Erlangen-Nuremberg and Stuttgart. He subsequently worked for Siemens as a software engineer, and was instrumental in their purchasing a 'Zuse Graphomat', a drawing machine operated by computer-generated punched tape. The machine was capable of creating geometric patterns and, although the programming language that Nees used (ALGOL) was designed specifically for scientific computers, Nees used it to create aesthetic images such as this one.

In 1969 he received his doctorate on the subject of Generative Computer Graphics under Max Bense, the German philosopher and writer.

Along with a number of other practitioners working at this time, Nees was interested in the relationship between order and disorder in picture composition. Here he introduced random variables into the computer program, causing the orderly squares to descend into chaos.

Physical description

Lithograph in black ink on paper, mounted on board.

Place of Origin

Germany (made)


1968-1970 (made)


Nees, Georg, born 1926 - died 2016 (artist)

Materials and Techniques

Lithograph on paper

Marks and inscriptions

'Computergrafik mit Siemens-System 4004'
Printed as part of the work. Refers to the computer used to generate the design.


Height: 98.5 cm, Width: 66.3 cm

Descriptive line

Lithograph in black ink from a computer-generated graphic, 'Schotter', 1968-1970, by Georg Nees.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Herzogenrath, Wulf and Nierhoff-Wielk, Barbara, eds. Ex Machina - Frühe Computergrafik bis 1979. Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 2007. ISBN 978-3-422-06689-2. p. 440, ill (cat. 341).


Paper (fiber product); Mounting board; Ink


Lithography; Computerized composition

Subjects depicted

Squares (geometric figures)


Prints; Computer Art


Prints, Drawings & Paintings Collection

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