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Panel

Panel

  • Place of origin:

    England (made)

  • Date:

    between 1543 and 1547 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Unknown (maker)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Clear and coloured glass, leaded together, painted in brown/black pigment and silver stain

  • Credit Line:

    Bought

  • Museum number:

    CIRC.311-1919

  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

The panel here shows the English Royal Arms as displayed between about 1406 and 1603. The arms of England (gules, 3 lions passant guardant or), meaning 3 gold lions running and looking at you on a red ground, were quartered with those of the French arms (azure, semi de lys or), meaning a field of fleur de lys on a blue ground, by King Edward III in 1340. Edward claimed the throne of France by right of his mother, Isabella, daughter of the Capetian king Philip IV. Philip had died in 1314 and was succeeded by a succession of sons, all who died leaving no surviving heirs. Edward claimed by right of Philip's daughter, Isabella, but the French Salic law prevents inheritance to the crown through the female line. The French crown passed to a cousin, Philip of Valois, in 1328 thus ending almost four hundred years of Capetian rule.

The Hundred Years War was a result of this struggle for the French crown. In 1376, the French arms were modified from a field of fleur de lys to only 3 fleur de lys. The English royal arms did not change to this form until 1405/6 under King Henry IV.

In 1603, James VI of Scotland ascended the English throne and the arms of Scotland were incorporated in the English Royal Arms so the arms here predate this event.

This panel also includes the red rose of the House of Lancaster and the white rose of the House of York, representing respectively the English royal lineage from the Plantangenets and the Yorkists. The Wars of the Roses in England in the 15th century was a series of civil wars between the Plantagenet line, first established in 1154, and the Yorkist line, established in 1461 and again in 1471 under King Edward IV. The Plantagnet line effectively ended in 1399 with the depostiion of King Richard II, who was the son of the eldest son of Edward III. Richard was succeeded by his cousin and deposer, Henry IV, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III's son John of Gaunt. Henry claimed legitimacy by right of his birth to a son of King Edward III. This was the beginning of the Lancastrian line who were to adopt the red rose as their badge. Henry IV was succeeded in a direct line by Henry V and then Henry VI. The instability of Henry VI's reign led to civil struggles for the crown between different branches of the family. Edward, Duke of York, was descended from another son of King Edward III and succeeded in obtaining the crown of England in 1461 and again in 1471 after an unsuccessful coup by supporters of Henry VI. Their badge was the white rose. In 1483, Edward's son Richard ascended the throne but was deposed and murdered by Henry Tudor in 1485.

Henry Tudor also claimed a legitimate right to the English throne through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, who was ultimately descended from the Plantagent line from the offspring of John of Gaunt and his mistress, Katherine Swynford. The offspring from this relationship had been legitimised by Parliament in 1390. Henry Tudor succeeded to the English crown as Henry VII. He married Elizabeth of York, thus uniting the Houses of Lancaster and York and effectively ending the Wars of the Roses.

This panel depicts the Royal Arms as borne by their son, Henry VIII. At the top of the arms are the initials 'KP' for Katherine Parr who was Henry VIII's sixth wife. These arms were most likely commissioned to commemorate their marriage in 1543. Henry died in 1547, Katherine a year later, so the arms would have only been displayed between 1543 and 1547.

Physical description

Panel of clear and coloured glass painted with brown/black pigment and silver (yellow) stain. Depicting the arms of England as displayed between c.1406 and 1603, with the Yorkist and Tudor roses and a medallion with the initials of Katherine Parr. English, between 1543 and 1547.
Panel of clear and coloured glass painted with brown/black pigment and silver (yellow) stain. Depicting the arms of England as displayed between c.1406 and 1603, with the Yorkist and Tudor roses and a medallion with the initials of Katherine Parr.

Place of Origin

England (made)

Date

between 1543 and 1547 (made)

Artist/maker

Unknown (maker)

Materials and Techniques

Clear and coloured glass, leaded together, painted in brown/black pigment and silver stain

Dimensions

Height: 17 3/4 in taken from Register, Width: 15 in taken from Register

Object history note

Purchased from A.L. Radford Esq., Bradninch Manor, Devon (19/3731)

Descriptive line

Panel of clear and coloured glass painted with brown/black pigment and silver (yellow) stain. Depicting the arms of England as displayed between c.1406 and 1603, with the Yorkist and Tudor roses and a medallion with the initials of Katherine Parr. English, between 1543 and 1547.

Materials

Glass

Subjects depicted

Coat of arms

Categories

Stained Glass; Royalty; British Galleries

Collection

Ceramics Collection

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