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Photograph - Hypatia
  • Hypatia
    Cameron, Julia Margaret, born 1815 - died 1879
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Hypatia

  • Object:

    Photograph

  • Place of origin:

    England (photographed)

  • Date:

    1868 (photographed)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Cameron, Julia Margaret, born 1815 - died 1879 (photographer)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Albumen print from wet collodion glass negative

  • Credit Line:

    Given by Window & Grove, 1963

  • Museum number:

    1141-1963

  • Gallery location:

    Prints & Drawings Study Room, level F, case X, shelf 311, box G

When Julia Margaret Cameron photographed her intellectual heroes, such as Tennyson, her aim was to record ‘the greatness of the inner as well as the features of the outer man’. Another motive was to earn money from prints, since her family’s finances were precarious. Within her first year as a photographer she began exhibiting and selling through the London gallery Colnaghi’s. She used autographs to increase the value of some portraits.

In March 1868, Cameron used two rooms at the South Kensington Museum as a portrait studio. Her letter of thanks makes clear her commercial aspirations, mentioning photographs she had sold and asking for help securing more, possibly royal, sitters.

Marie Spartali was an artist’s model and painter, and daughter of the Greek consul in London. While visiting Freshwater in the summer of 1868 she posed as Hypatia, a 4th-century Greek philosopher, one of the many strong women Cameron depicted. Spartali also sat for Cameron at the South Kensington Museum in March that year and her father ordered 40 copies of the resulting portrait.

Physical description

A photograph of a seated woman (Marie Spartali) in 3/4 profile with long hair, beaded bracelet and hands clasped upon her lap.

Place of Origin

England (photographed)

Date

1868 (photographed)

Artist/maker

Cameron, Julia Margaret, born 1815 - died 1879 (photographer)

Materials and Techniques

Albumen print from wet collodion glass negative

Marks and inscriptions

"From Life Registered Photograph Copy Right" in ink bottoom left verso of mount. "Hypatia" in ink bottom centre verso of mount. "Julia Margaret Cameron in ink bottom right verso of mount

Dimensions

Height: 30.5 cm image, Width: 24.5 cm image, Height: 34.5 cm sheet, Width: 26.0 cm sheet, Height: 58 cm mount, Width: 38 cm mount

Object history note

Julia Margaret Cameron (1815–79) was one of the most important and innovative photographers of the 19th century. Her photographs were rule-breaking: purposely out of focus, and often including scratches, smudges and other traces of the artist’s process. Best known for her powerful portraits, she also posed her sitters – friends, family and servants – as characters from biblical, historical or allegorical stories.

Born in Calcutta on 11 June 1815, the fourth of seven sisters, her father was an East India Company official and her mother descended from French aristocracy. Educated mainly in France, Cameron returned to India in 1834.

In 1842, the British astronomer Sir John Herschel (1792 – 1871) introduced Cameron to photography, sending her examples of the new invention. They had met in 1836 while Cameron was convalescing from an illness in the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. He remained a life-long friend and correspondent on technical photographic matters. That same year she met Charles Hay Cameron (1795–1880), 20 years her senior, a reformer of Indian law and education. They married in Calcutta in 1838 and she became a prominent hostess in colonial society. A decade later, the Camerons moved to England. By then they had four children; two more were born in England. Several of Cameron’s sisters were already living there, and had established literary, artistic and social connections. The Camerons eventually settled in Freshwater, on the Isle of Wight.

At the age of 48 Cameron received a camera as a gift from her daughter and son-in-law. It was accompanied by the words, ‘It may amuse you, Mother, to try to photograph during your solitude at Freshwater.’ Cameron had compiled albums and even printed photographs before, but her work as a photographer now began in earnest.

The Camerons lived at Freshwater until 1875, when they moved to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) where Charles Cameron had purchased coffee and rubber plantations, managed under difficult agricultural and financial conditions by three of their sons. Cameron continued her photographic practice at her new home yet her output decreased significantly and only a small body of photographs from this time remains. After moving to Ceylon the Camerons made only one more visit to England in May 1878. Julia Margaret Cameron died after a brief illness in Ceylon in 1879.

Cameron’s relationship with the Victoria and Albert Museum dates to the earliest years of her photographic career. The first museum exhibition of Cameron's work was held in 1865 at the South Kensington Museum, London (now the V&A). The South Kensington Museum was not only the sole museum to exhibit Cameron’s work in her lifetime, but also the institution that collected her photographs most extensively in her day. In 1868 the Museum gave Cameron the use of two rooms as a portrait studio, perhaps qualifying her as its first artist-in-residence. Today the V&A’s Cameron collection includes photographs acquired directly from the artist, others collected later from various sources, and five letters from Cameron to Sir Henry Cole (1808–82), the Museum’s founding director and an early supporter of photography.

Descriptive line

Photograph by Julia Margaret Cameron, 'Hypatia' (sitter Marie Spartali), albumen print, 1868

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Mikael Ahlund, ed, including an essay by Martin Barnes, The Pre-Raphaelites Stockholm: Nationalmuseum, 2009. ISBN: 978-91-7100-809-1.
Ford, Colin and Cox, Julian. Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003. Cat. no. 469, p.260, ill.
Wolf, Sylvia (et al). Julia Margaret Cameron's Women. London: The Institute of Chicago and London: Yale University Press, 1998, pl. 34.
Gernsheim, Helmut. Julia Margaret Cameron: Her Life and Photographic Work. Millerton, N.Y.: Aperture, 1975, p. 145.
Weaver, Mike. Julia Margaret Cameron 1815 - 1879. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1984, p. 119.
Gernsheim, Helmut. Julia Margaret Cameron: Her Life and Photographic Work. London: Fountain Press, 1948, pl. 9.
Weiss, Marta. Julia Margaret Cameron: Photographs to electrify you with delight and startle the world. London: MACK, 2015, p. 104.

Labels and date

Julia Margaret Cameron
Victoria and Albert Museum

Hypatia

1868

Marie Spartali was an artist’s model and painter, and daughter of the Greek consul in London. While visiting Freshwater in the summer of 1868 she posed as Hypatia, a 4th-century Greek philosopher, one of the many strong women Cameron depicted. Spartali also sat for Cameron at the South Kensington Museum in March that year and her father ordered 40 copies of the resulting portrait.

Given by Window & Grove, 1963
V&A: 1141-1963 [28 November 2015 – 21 February 2016]

Materials

Photographic paper

Techniques

Albumen process

Subjects depicted

Painter; Woman; Pre-Raphaelite

Categories

Photographs; Portraits; Allegory

Collection

Prints, Drawings & Paintings Collection

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