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  • Place of origin:

    England (made)

  • Date:

    ca. 1802 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Spicer, Henry, born 1743 - died 1804 (maker)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Enamel on copper, papier mâché and wood frame with ormolu mounts

  • Credit Line:

    The Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Collection on loan to the Victoria and Albert Museum, London

  • Museum number:


  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

Francis Rawdon-Hastings (1754-1826) was governor-general of Bengal from 1813 to 1822, overseeing the Gurkha War and the purchase of Singapore for Britain in 1819.

Continental artists first introduced enamel painting to England in the 17th century. But it was in the early 18th century that it became fashionable. The young German Christian Friedrich Zincke dominated the market in London. It was Zincke who trained a number of English artists, including William Prewett. Most artists working in enamel were taught by an experienced enameller. It is not known who trained Gervase Spencer this difficult art, but he later taught Henry Spicer, who in turn taught William Birch. In 1794 Birch successfully established himself in America as an enamel painter.

Sir Arthur Gilbert and his wife Rosalinde formed one of the world's great decorative art collections, including silver, mosaics, enamelled portrait miniatures and gold boxes. Arthur Gilbert donated his extraordinary collection to Britain in 1996.

Physical description

Rectangular miniature portrait of Francis Rawdon-Hastings, the 2nd Earl of Moira and Governor General of India, shown in a scarlet and blue uniform holding a document with a pillar to his left and a crimson background. The miniature is enamel on copper and the frame is of papier mâché and wood with ormolu mounts.

Place of Origin

England (made)


ca. 1802 (made)


Spicer, Henry, born 1743 - died 1804 (maker)

Materials and Techniques

Enamel on copper, papier mâché and wood frame with ormolu mounts

Marks and inscriptions

Inscribed '(?) Rt Honble (?) / Earl of Moira / born the 7th December 1756 / (?) painted (?) by Spicer / Enamel painter to / HRH the Prince of Wales' (faint)
On backing paper


Height: 37.5 cm, Width: 33.2 cm, Depth: c.3.8 cm

Object history note

Provenance: Sale, Christie's London, lot 49, 19/03/1980.

Descriptive line

Enamel miniature on copper of Francis Rawdon-Hastings, the 2nd Earl of Moira, in a papier mache and wood frame with ormolu mounts, England, ca.1802, by Henry Spicer.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Coffin, Sarah and Bodo Hofstetter. Portrait Miniatures in Enamel. London: Philip Wilson Publishers Ltd. in association with the Gilbert Collection, 2000. 168 p., ill. Cat. no. 56, pp. 105-106. ISBN 0856675334

Labels and date

Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Earl of Moira
About 1802

Francis Rawdon-Hastings (1754–1826) was an MP in
the Irish parliament and served as an army officer
and general. A later portrait of him painted by Henry
Bone is displayed in the second drawer of the adjacent

England; Henry Spicer (1743–1804),
after John Hoppner (1758–1810)
Enamel on copper in rectangular gilded copper-alloy
mounted papier-mâché and wood frame,
with husk border surmounted by Earl’s coronet
Inscribed on backing paper ‘(?) Rt Honble (?)Earl of Moira
born the 7th December 1756 (?) painted (?) by Spicer
Enamel painter to HRH the Prince of Wales’
Museum no. Loan:Gilbert.228-2008 [2009]

Production Note

Portrait after John Hoppner


Enamel; Copper; Papier-mache; Wood; Ormolu


Painting (image-making); Framing

Subjects depicted

Male figure


Enamels; Portraits


Metalwork Collection

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