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Panel - The Oxburgh Hangings
  • The Oxburgh Hangings
    Mary, Queen of Scots, born 1542 - died 1587
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The Oxburgh Hangings

  • Object:

    Panel

  • Place of origin:

    England (made)

  • Date:

    1570-1585 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Mary, Queen of Scots, born 1542 - died 1587 (maker)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Embroidered linen canvas with silk and silver-gilt threads

  • Credit Line:

    Presented by Art Fund

  • Museum number:

    T.33P-1955

  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

This embroidered panel bears the monogram of Mary, Queen of Scots and is thought to represent one of her pet dogs, named 'Jupiter'. It is part of a collection of needlework known as the Oxburgh hangings. They were made between 1570 and about 1585, the work of Mary during her imprisonment in England and Elizabeth (Bess) Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury. Bess’s husband George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury was responsible for Mary and she stayed at one or other of the Shrewsbury estates.

Embroidery was a form of therapy and communication for Mary, as well as a conventional occupation for wealthy and elite women. Most of the motifs depicted were copied from the wood-cut illustrations of emblem books and natural histories by well-known authors such as Claud Paradin, Conrad Gessner, Pierre Belon. These often represented sentiments and morals from classical literature and contemporary folklore, and were chosen Mary to express her most private thoughts at a time when all her written correspondence was being monitored by her captors.

This panel of canvas work (stitching over the threads of a coarsely woven linen) is embroidered in coloured silks, silver and silver-gilt thread. Those executed by Mary bear her monogram, the letters MA superimposed on the Greek letter phi and those by Bess, the initials ES. Not all the panels were embroidered by Mary and Bess, as household accounts show that both had professional embroiderers on staff. The existing ‘hangings’ consist of a of wall hanging, two bed curtains and valance, on permanent long-term loan at Oxburgh Hall in Norfolk. However these were probably not the original arrangement of the embroidery, but sewn together in the late 17th century. This group of 33 embroideries are the remains of another hanging, now unpicked.

Physical description

Cruciform textile panel of embroidered linen canvas with silk and silver-gilt threads. A representation of a black and white dog, shown sideways (facing to the left) occupies the most of the panel. It is topped by a red scroll bearing the inscription "Jupiter" (all in capital letters). The entire ground has a geometrical pattern consisting of the series of rhomboid fields embroidered in blue, green, white, ochre and beige silks. In the section between the dog and the scroll, a monogram (MR) is embroidered in silks matching the ones in the ground, which makes it hard to notice at a first galnce. The panel is edged with a raised border of silver-gilt embroidery.

Place of Origin

England (made)

Date

1570-1585 (made)

Artist/maker

Mary, Queen of Scots, born 1542 - died 1587 (maker)

Materials and Techniques

Embroidered linen canvas with silk and silver-gilt threads

Marks and inscriptions

JUPITER
Inscribed

MR [monogram]
Signed, for Maria Regina

Dimensions

Height: 29.2 cm, Width: 30.5 cm, :, Width: 30.5 cm

Object history note

The Oxburgh Hangings. Hanging with applied panels of embroidery, formerly at Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk.

Descriptive line

Cruciform textile panel 'The Oxburgh Hangings' of embroidered linen canvas with silk and silver-gilt threads, made by Mary Queen of Scots, England, 1570-1585

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Margaret Swain, The Needlework of Mary Queen of Scots, Carlton Bedford: Ruth Bean, 1986, p.107 and pl.72

Materials

Linen

Techniques

Hand embroidery

Subjects depicted

Dog (animal)

Categories

Embroidery; Royalty; Textiles; Scotland

Collection

Textiles and Fashion Collection

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