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Oil painting - Professor John Marshall, FRS (1818-1891), Surgeon
  • Professor John Marshall, FRS (1818-1891), Surgeon
    Legros, Alphonse, born 1837 - died 1911
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Professor John Marshall, FRS (1818-1891), Surgeon

  • Object:

    Oil painting

  • Place of origin:

    London (painted)

  • Date:

    1879 (painted)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Legros, Alphonse, born 1837 - died 1911 (painter (artist))

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Oil on canvas

  • Credit Line:

    Given by the artist

  • Museum number:

    372-1880

  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

Alphonse Legros (1837-1911) was born in Dijon where he entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts before attending the 'Petite Ecole' of Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1802-1897) in Paris and then Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He started exhibited at the Salon in 1857. In 1863, Legros visited London where he found admirers and patrons, notably the Ionides family, and was ardently promoted by the brothers Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Michael Rossetti. An etcher, a painter and a sculptor, he succeeded Edward John Poynter (1836-1919) at the Slade School in 1876 and was naturalized as a British citizen in 1880.

This work is a fine example of Legros' portraits of scholars and artists of his time. The sitter is the surgeon John Marshall, who was professor of anatomy at the Royal Academy. He lectured on artistic anatomy and pioneered the teaching of physiology at University College, London, to mixed classes. This work was probably executed as one of Legros' famous timed head-studies, a method he developed while lecturing at the Slade School. The artist gave this portrait to the Museum, probably to enrich its collections of educational materials as the museum included at the time a School of Design.

Physical description

Face portrait of a man with grizzled hair, large forehead, dark eyes, and grizzled beard and moustache in an unfinished sketchy dark jacket with a white collar, silhouetted against a neutral greyish background.

Place of Origin

London (painted)

Date

1879 (painted)

Artist/maker

Legros, Alphonse, born 1837 - died 1911 (painter (artist))

Materials and Techniques

Oil on canvas

Dimensions

Height: 17.5 in estimate, Width: 13.5 in estimate, :

Object history note

Given by the artist, 1880

Historical significance: This painting is a fine example of Legros' portraits. It depicts the surgeon John Marshall (1818-1891) who may have been acquainted with Legros by the intermediary of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882), one his patients and supporters. Rossetti belonged to the company of independent painters that welcomed Legros upon his arrival to London.
This portrait was probably painted during a single sitting as one of Legros' famous timed studies he performed in front of his pupils in the Slade School and of which the museum owns several exemplars (see for instance 821-1877 and 823-1877). His method was described as followed:
'On stated occasions a special model is ordered, and the professor, standing in the centre of the life school, paints a complete study-head before those students who are sufficiently advanced to be admitted to the life class. His method of work is simple in the extreme; the canvas is grounded with a tone similar to the wall of the room so that no background needs to be painted. […] In about an hour and a half, sometimes in less time, the study is completed, and the watchers have probably learned more in the course of that silent lesson than during three times the amount of verbal instruction.' (The Magazine of Art, vol. 6, 1883).
This method founded the influential 'Slade tradition' of fine draughtsmanship. Legros did many oil sketches of this type, which were extensively copied by his pupils. This technique, although used for centuries by European artists, astonished the Victorians (MacDonald, 2004).
However there are also a couple of critical accounts of the process: Camille Pissaro (1831-1903) but also Walter Richard Sickert (1860-1942), James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) and John Ruskin (1819-1900) criticised among other things the 'entire absence of relation between the head and the background'. (Sickert, 1947, p. 239).

Historical context note

In his encyclopaedic work, Historia Naturalis, the ancient Roman author Pliny the Elder described the origins of painting in the outlining of a man's projected shadow in profile. In the ancient period, profile portraits were found primarily in imperial coins. With the rediscovery and the increasing interest in the Antique during the early Renaissance, artists and craftsmen looked back to this ancient tradition and created medals with profile portraits on the obverse and personal devise on the reverse in order to commemorate and celebrate the sitter. Over time these profile portraits were also depicted on panels and canvas, and progressively evolved towards three-quarter and eventually frontal portraits.
These portraits differ in many ways from the notion of portraiture commonly held today as they especially aimed to represent an idealised image of the sitter and reflect therefore a different conception of identity. The sitter's likeness was more or less recognisable but his particular status and familiar role were represented in his garments and attributes referring to his character. The 16th century especially developed the ideal of metaphorical and visual attributes through the elaboration of highly complex portrait paintings in many formats including at the end of the century full-length portraiture. Along with other devices specific to the Italian Renaissance such as birth trays (deschi da parto) and wedding chests' decorated panels (cassoni or forzieri), portrait paintings participated to the emphasis on the individual.
Portrait paintings were still fashionable during the following centuries and extended to the rising bourgeoisie and eventually to common people, especially during the social and political transformations of the 19th century. At the end of the 19th century and during the 20th century, painted portraits were challenged and eventually supplanted by the development of new media such as photography.

Descriptive line

Oil painting, 'Professor John Marshall FRS (1818-1891), Alphonse Legros, 1879

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Summary Catalogue of British Paintings, London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1973, p. 80-81.
The Magazine of Art, vol. 6, 1883
W. Sickert, A free house! Or, The artist as craftsman, Osbert Sitwell ed., London, 1947, p. 239.
W. Rothenstein, Men and memories, recollections, 1872-1938, vol. 1, London, 1978, p. 25.
A. S. Hartrick, A painter's pilgrimage through fifty years, Cambridge, 1939, pp. 7-10.
S. MacDonald, The History and Philosophy of Art Education, Cambridge, 2004, pp. 270-283, esp. 270-273.
W. F. Bynum, 'Marshall, John (1818-1891)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/18145, accessed 25 Feb 2011].

Materials

Oil paint; Canvas

Techniques

Oil painting

Categories

Paintings; Portraits

Collection

Prints, Drawings & Paintings Collection

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