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Photograph - The Teppa-kulam
  • The Teppa-kulam
    Tripe, Linnaeus, born 1822 - died 1902
  • Enlarge image

The Teppa-kulam

  • Object:


  • Place of origin:

    Madurai (photographed)

  • Date:

    January 1858 to March 1858 (photographed)
    1860 (published)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Tripe, Linnaeus, born 1822 - died 1902 (photographer)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Albumen print from waxed paper (calotype) negative

  • Credit Line:

    Given by Lady Denison

  • Museum number:


  • Gallery location:

    In Storage

Linnaeus Tripe (1822–1902) documented much of south India as official photographer to the Madras government (1856-1860). This photograph shows the Teppacolum. The text published with this image states 'In the centre is an island containing an ornamental Mundapam or Pavilion. Into this the images of the god Sundareshwara and his consort Minakshi, are brought and placed at a certain festival early in each year. They previously take their pleasure by being rowed or punted about the tank (kulam) in a gaily decorated raft (teppam). The tank was built by Tirumalai Nayak (ruled 1623–59)'. Tripe took two very similar views of the Teppacolum, intending them to be used together in a stereoscopic viewer to give a 3-dimensional effect.

Physical description

This photograph shows the Teppacolum, a large temple in the middle of a lake hidden behind some trees. Long shadows mark the lawn in the foreground, and the walls surrounding the lake are stripy.

Place of Origin

Madurai (photographed)


January 1858 to March 1858 (photographed)
1860 (published)


Tripe, Linnaeus, born 1822 - died 1902 (photographer)

Materials and Techniques

Albumen print from waxed paper (calotype) negative


Height: 260 mm photographic print, Width: 379 mm photographic print, Height: 454 mm album page, Width: 575 mm album page

Object history note

This photograph was given by Lady Denison in 1889 during the keepership of Caspar Purdon Clarke, Keeper of the Indian Section of the V&A. It was written off in 1937, and rediscovered and re-evaluated in the 1990s. See Dewan p.453 for listings of other copies elsewhere.
This photograph was published as plate IV of ten in the album Photographs of Madura: Part I 1858, by 'Captain L. Tripe, Government Photographer', published in 1860. It was taken as part of Tripe's remit as the government photographer, which he himself defined broadly, as recording, ‘before they disappear’ buildings, sculptures and inscriptions…' including the picturesque. This was a model for an extensive survey, including tuition of others and experimentation in his own practice. He was funded by the Madras government, but intended selling additional copies of some prints so that his practice could be self-funding.

This photograph was published with the following text:
'A large tank 2 miles East of the Town [Madura]; it is about 300 yards square. The sides are of cut stones throughout, with flights of steps at intervals. In the centre is an island containing an ornamental Mundapam or Pavilion. Into this the images of the god Sundareshwara and his consort Minakshi, are brought and placed at a certain festival early in each year. They previously take their pleasure by being rowed or punted about the tank (kulam) in a gaily decorated raft (teppam). The tank was built by Tirumalai Nayak (ruled 1623–59), who is said to have expended upon it a lakh (100,000) of Pons [I pon=1/16th of a rupee], and to have given land with a rental of 10,000 Pons, for the expenses of the annual festival. It is useless to speculate on the real cost of the work; forced labour having been in all probability largely called into play. The tank is supplied from a channel taken off from the Vaigai river.'

Historical significance: Tripe's photographs of South India are an important body of work within Tripe's oeuvre, and are recognised as being some of the most aesthetically and technically competent images of India made in the 19th century.
Tripe entered his Madura series as part of total of 50 photographs from his 1857–8 tour of South India in the 1859 annual exhibition of the Madras Photographic Society. The jury dubbed his photographs ‘the best in the Exhibition’ but as Tripe could not be classed an amateur, he could not win the gold medal. Tripe declined the silver medal amicably, since he considered that as an official photographer he had an unfair advantage over the other entrants.
Tripe’s photographs were valued for their informational value and their technical quality. The adjudicating committee stated that Tripe’s photographs ‘illustrate admirably the architecture of the Hindoo Temples and Places of Southern India, and in particular the Madura and Tanjore series comprise in this respect all that is most worthy of record in those cities.’ (See Dewan, p.16). Forty-six of Tripe’s 50 exhibited images were made from paper (calotype) negatives, which the committee didn't feel were as successful as dry collodion-on-glass negatives, however, declaring that ‘the superiority of definition given by Collodion [-on-glass] is very visible when placed side by side with them.’ It is thought that Tripe prefered paper to glass negatives due to paper being easier and safer to work with.

Historical context note

The southern districts tour and Madras presidency photographs, 1857-58
The Madras government appointed Tripe as photographer following the 1855 directive from the Court of Directors in London, who discouraged illustration in favour of 'photography as a means by which representations may be obtained of scenes and buildings, with the advantages of perfect accuracy, small expenditure of time, and moderate cash', and asked that photography be the main means of recording architecture and antiquities (Dewan, p.6).

As official photographer to the Madras Government, Tripe set off from Bangalore on 14 December 1857 after delays due to waiting for modifications to his new English camera, and his recovery after falling from a horse. He ended his tour in Madras on 30 April 1858 after travelling via Srirangam, Tiruchchirappalli, Madurai, then Pudukkottai, Tanjore, and Tiruchchirappalli again (then called Seeringham, Trichinopoly, Madura, Poodoocottah and Tanjore).

All of these areas had been forcefully taken under British rule in the previous one hundred years, but Tripe looked for scenes or subjects with architectural or antiquarian interest rather than political significance. He had wanted to ensure his images were practical too: before he had set out he had asked the chief engineer for guidance on what would be most useful from an engineering perspective, and incorporated this input into his work.

Descriptive line

Photograph, 19th century; No. IV 'The Teppa-kulam', from the photograph album by Capt. Linnaeus Tripe, 'Photographs of Madura: Part 1'; South India, 1858

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Dewan, Janet. The Photographs of Linnaeus Tripe: A Catalogue Raisonné. Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 2003, p.453.

Production Note

Edition number unknown. The album of which this photograph is part is one of between 71 and 74 copies.

Attribution note: The V&A has another copy of Tripe's Photographic Views in Madura, parts I to IV (bound) in the National Art Library, pressmark 104.N. The Royal Photographic Society holds the waxed paper negative.
Reason For Production: Commission

Subjects depicted

Pavilion; Water; Temples



Production Type

Limited edition


South & South East Asia Collection

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