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Miftah al-Sarod

  • Object:

    Manuscript page

  • Place of origin:

    Deccan (north, made)

  • Date:

    late 19th century to early 20th century (made)
    1691 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Unknown

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Painted, written and drawn in opaque watercolour, gold and ink on paper

  • Museum number:

    IS.61:84-1977

  • Gallery location:

    South Asia, Room 41, case 12B

Physical description

Text in black and red ink, and opaque watercolour and gold on paper, on the front of a page, numbered 74 in Arabic numerals, from an illuminated manuscript. Illustrated, in opaque watercolour and gold on paper, depicting an enthroned ruler beneath a shamiana with three attendants, one holding a morchhal aloft.

Place of Origin

Deccan (north, made)

Date

late 19th century to early 20th century (made)
1691 (made)

Artist/maker

Unknown

Materials and Techniques

Painted, written and drawn in opaque watercolour, gold and ink on paper

Dimensions

Height: 24.6 cm, Width: 16.3 cm maximum

Object history note

The Mifta al-Sarod is a musical treatise in Persian written at Daulatabad in the Deccan by Qazi Hasan, son of Khwaja Tahir, son of Khwaja Muhammad Qazi, in 1673/4. The present copy was written and illustrated, according to the colophon, in the district of Indur (modern Nizamabad) in the Deccan in 1102 A.H. (July-August A.D.1691). It was rebound, probably in the late 19th or early 20th century.

The treatise is a ragamala work or 'garland of musical modes'. It describes the six principal ragas or musical modes (given as Bhairon, Malakansika, Hindola, Dipak, Shri and Megha Malhar) and their 31 'wives' and 49 'sons'. Each raga has 5 'wives' and 8 'sons' but Shri raga has 6 'wives' and 9 'sons'. This is based on the system of Ksemakarna but modified in the case of Shri Raga. Thus the total number of ragas (male) and raginis (female) is eighty-six, of which eighty-three illustrated remain in the manuscript.

Descriptive line

Front of a page numbered 74 in Arabic numerals, illustrated, enthroned ruler, with text in black and red ink, from an illuminated manuscript, a bound copy of the Miftah al-Sarod (a musical treatise by Qazi Hasan), ink, opaque watercolour and gold on paper, north Deccan, dated 1691 AD

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Skelton, R, in The Indian Heritage. Court Life and Arts under Mughal Rule, V&A, 1982, cat.82, p. 48, ISBN 0906969263.

Production Note

This copy was written and illustrated in the district of Indur (modern Nizamabad) in the Deccan, in 1102 A.H. (July-August 1691 AD).

Materials

Paper (fiber product); Ink; Water-colour; Gold

Techniques

Painted; Written; Drawn

Subjects depicted

Standard; Servants; Ruler; Canopy

Categories

Manuscripts; Hinduism; Paintings; Bonita Trust Indian Paintings Cataloguing Project

Collection

South & South East Asia Collection

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