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Drawing

  • Place of origin:

    London, England (designed)

  • Date:

    25/06/1934 (designed)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Kauffer, Edward McKnight, born 1890 - died 1954 (designer)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    [drawing] Pencil, pen and ink, gouache and collage on paper
    [drawing] Pencil on tracing paper

  • Museum number:

    E.3757:1, 2-2004

  • Gallery location:

    Prints & Drawings Study Room, level E, case MD, shelf 1

  • Image in copyright

This design, showing a robot-like figure by Edward McKnight Kauffer for Shell Mex and British Petroleum (B.P.) Ltd., was one of the designs for the advertising campaign for 'Shell Oil' in 1934. This Shell or Mechanical Man, which featured in many Shell-BP advertisements, has later become one of the UK's most famous 'brand' characters.

Kauffer is widely recognised as a leading innovator in graphic design in 1930s Britain, and many consider him to have been the greatest poster designer of the first half of the 20th century. He was employed by Shell Mex and B.P. Ltd., which was arguably the most progressive British company in terms of its marketing profile in this period, and helped the company project an image associated with Modernism, technical advances and modern life-styles.

Physical description

[drawing] This design shows a robot-like firgure posing as though supporting the large capital 'T', on which another outlined 'T' is diagonally placed. In the lower part of the design is advertising text for 'Shell Oil'.
[drawing] Sheet of tracing paper which is attached to the top of the design beneath it. The height of the letter T '3 3/4"' is inscribed in pencil on the tracing paper.

Place of Origin

London, England (designed)

Date

25/06/1934 (designed)

Artist/maker

Kauffer, Edward McKnight, born 1890 - died 1954 (designer)

Materials and Techniques

[drawing] Pencil, pen and ink, gouache and collage on paper
[drawing] Pencil on tracing paper

Marks and inscriptions

[drawing] 'DESIGNED BY / 25 JUN. 1934 / E. MCK. KAUFFER'
[drawing] 'Cat No 1090'
[drawing] '57/43'
[drawing] 'ARTIST E. McK. Kauffer / PRODUCT Shell Oil DATE 6/34 / SEEN BY M.T. J / JOB Nos. L.177 / RACK No. USED / SHELL MEX and B.P. Ltd.'
[drawing] 'RSON'S FASHION BOARD / " A " Surface / ards have established for themselves / repute as a perfect surface for all / and White Work. / IMPERIAL SIZES / x 21 1/2 No. 3, 15 x 10 3/4 / 1/2 x 15 " 6, 10 3/4 x 7 1/2 / ROYAL SIZES / x 18 No. 9, 12 x 9 / x 12 / Boards are made in two Surfaces; / rdinary: and "B" Extra Smooth
[drawing] '1103'
[drawing] 'Negative [illegible]'
[drawing] 'solid black'
[drawing] 'McKK'
[drawing] '1ST MR. J. H. SIMPSON / (RUDGE) / JUNIOR RACE / 2nd MR. J. H. SIMPSON / (NORTON) / SENIOR RACE / 3rd MR. J. H. SIMPSON / (NORTON) / (Subject to official confirmation) / in every case - / Lubrication by / SHELL'
[drawing] '3 3/4"'
[drawing] 'Neg [illegible] / on black.'

Dimensions

[drawing] Height: 28 cm design, Width: 16.9 cm design, Height: 30.5 cm sheet, Width: 22.8 cm sheet
[drawing] Height: 32.7 cm, Width: 21.9 cm

Object history note

This design along with other designs for Shell Mex and B.P. Ltd. were until recently part of the Shell-BP Archive housed in Warwick University. Following a programme of digitisation, they were considered redundant and sold at auction. This coherent group of design was assembled by Hilary Gerrish and Neil Jennings from a variety of muscellaneous lots.

One highlight of this collection is the Shell or Mechanical Man, which featured in many Shell-BP advertisements, is one of the UK's most famost 'brand' characters. Other highlights include three finished brilliantly coloured gouache drawings for petrol pump designs, unused, one of which was illustrated in the seminal book on Kauffer by Mark Haworth-Booth (E. McKnight Kauffer: A Designer and His Public, 1979, p.74). A letter and design work relate to the important Shell Graphic Design Agency set up in 1932; there are also a number of workings-out, with alternative versions, for campaigns including the Aero-Shell and TEL (tetra-ethyl lead, an anti-knock fuel). The design drawings themselves demonstrate a wide range of innovative techniques including photomontage, collage and airbrush.

Historical significance: Edward McKnight Kauffer was a leading exponent of the Modern style. He is widely recognised as a cutting-edge shaper of graphic design in 1930s Britain, and many consider him to have been the greatest poster designer of the first half of the 20th century.

Although V&A's existing holdings of Kauffer's work include designs and posters, they are almost exclusively finished presentation drawings. This design along with other designs for Shell Mex and B.P. Ltd. show much more vividly the working out of ideas and the thinking that underpins the design process itself and therefore allow V&A to demostrate effectively and completely the design practice of this important and influential designer.

Historical context note

Shell Mex and B.P. Ltd., which was formed in 1932, was arguably the most progressive British company in terms of its marketing profile in this period. Under the inspired patronage of its advertising manager Jack Beddington (1893-1959), who in 1929 first employed Edward McKnight Kauffer, a number of talented avant-garde artists were commissioned to help the company project an image associated with Modernism, technical advances and modern life-styles.

Descriptive line

Design drawing by Edward McKnight Kauffer for Shell Mex and B.P. Ltd., London, 1934

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Haworth-Booth, Mark. E. McKnight Kauffer: A designer and his public. London: Gordon Fraser, 1979.
Haworth-Booth, Mark. E. McKnight Kauffer: a designer and his public. London: V&A Publications, 2005.

Associated names

Beddington, Jack

Production Note

Reason For Production: Commission

Materials

Paper; Pencil; Ink; Gouache; Tracing paper

Techniques

Collage; Drawing techniques; Painting techniques

Subjects depicted

Transportation; Lubricating oil

Categories

Advertising; Drawings; Designs

Production Type

Design

Collection code

PDP

Qr_O125415
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