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Four soldiers and two nurses? World War One, wounded

  • Object:

    Photograph

  • Place of origin:

    Hastings (photographed)

  • Date:

    1910-1930s (photographed)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, born 1871 - died 1956 (photographer)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Gelatine-silver print

  • Credit Line:

    Purchased through the Cecil Beaton Royalties Fund

  • Museum number:

    E.3480-2004

  • Gallery location:

    Prints & Drawings Study Room, level F, case X, shelf 980, box D

Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles (born Rotterdam 1871, died Hastings 1956) was a pioneering photographic journalist who published his work in the new illustrated magazines of the late 19th and early 20th century. From the turn of the century he travelled around Europe, living in Berlin, Brussels, Paris and Jersey. With his eye for detail, timing and geometry, he accurately captured the leisure activities, sports and customs of the period. Besides their documentary value, his photographs have a quirky and almost surreal quality.
‘Riposo’ (Italian for ‘rest’ or ‘repose’) was a Health Hydro & Dietetic Sanatorium in St. Helen’s Park, Hastings, Sussex. It was founded by Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles in 1913, as one of the first health resorts in the United Kingdom which employed Nature Cure. Nature Cure, or ‘Naturopathy’ as it s sometimes called, is a particular approach in itself but is also the basis of most alternative therapies. One of the fundamental principles of the cure is that illness results from the accumulation of toxins or waste in the body, as a result of an unnatural way of living. Pitcairn-Knowles promoted a variety of treatments: Hydropathy (water and steam applications), Heliotheraphy (sun, air and light treatment), Dietetics, Physical Culture (exercises, manual therapy and massage), the Guelpa Cure and the Schroth Cure. In Riposo many diseases were treated (among others obesity, mental depression, hysteria, insomnia, liver and kidney troubles, rheumatism and skin diseases) but was also open to healthy people.
Of all the cures Pitcairn-Knowles seems to have been most interested in the ‘Schroth Cure.’ It was invented by Johann Schroth around 1718. He prescribed patients to sleep in wet sheets ( called ‘wet packs’) and follow a ‘dry diet’. This diet consisted of four meals a week (only rice, sago, groats, porridge or potatoes) and stale bread in addition. Because Schroth believed copious drinking would weaken the patients, the only fluid they were allowed to drink was wine, on four days a week. This helped them to overcome the weariness that the ‘dry diet’ caused.
Photography was an important tool for Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles during the time he ran ‘Riposo’. He documented treatments, produced educational material and traced the history and methods of the ‘Schroth’ Cure. During a visit to Schroth’s hometown Lindewiese in Austria (now Czech Republic), Pitcairn-Knowles asked villagers to demonstrate the experiments with ‘wet packs’ that Schroth had applied to animals. Pitcairn-Knowles added photographs such as these to his ‘pictorial description of the great healer’s methods.’ Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles, and later his son Gordon Pitcairn-Knowles, used lantern slides to illustrate their lectures on cures. Some photo’s may also have been displayed at an exhibition at Riposo, to inform visitors about the cures employed at the estabablishment. ‘Riposo’ closed in 1962.

Physical description

A photograph of four men (of which two seated) and two nurses pose in front of a tent. One of the men is wounded.

Place of Origin

Hastings (photographed)

Date

1910-1930s (photographed)

Artist/maker

Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, born 1871 - died 1956 (photographer)

Materials and Techniques

Gelatine-silver print

Marks and inscriptions

'016/5'
Donor's reference, verso, pencil.

Dimensions

Height: 9.1 cm, Width: 11.4 cm

Object history note

Pitcairn-Knowles Archive purchased from Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles' grandson Richard Pitcairn-Knowles.

Historical context note

Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles (born Rotterdam 1871, died Hastings 1956) was a pioneering photographic journalist who published his work in the new illustrated magazines of the late 19th and early 20th century. From the turn of the century he travelled around Europe, living in Berlin, Brussels, Paris and Jersey. With his eye for detail, timing and geometry, he accurately captured the leisure activities, sports and customs of the period. Besides their documentary value, his photographs have a quirky and almost surreal quality.
‘Riposo’ (Italian for ‘rest’ or ‘repose’) was a Health Hydro & Dietetic Sanatorium in St. Helen’s Park, Hastings, Sussex. It was founded by Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles in 1913, as one of the first health resorts in the United Kingdom which employed Nature Cure. Nature Cure, or ‘Naturopathy’ as it s sometimes called, is a particular approach in itself but is also the basis of most alternative therapies. One of the fundamental principles of the cure is that illness results from the accumulation of toxins or waste in the body, as a result of an unnatural way of living. Pitcairn-Knowles promoted a variety of treatments: Hydropathy (water and steam applications), Heliotheraphy (sun, air and light treatment), Dietetics, Physical Culture (exercises, manual therapy and massage), the Guelpa Cure and the Schroth Cure. In Riposo many diseases were treated (among others obesity, mental depression, hysteria, insomnia, liver and kidney troubles, rheumatism and skin diseases) but was also open to healthy people.
Of all the cures Pitcairn-Knowles seems to have been most interested in the ‘Schroth Cure.’ It was invented by Johann Schroth around 1718. He prescribed patients to sleep in wet sheets ( called ‘wet packs’) and follow a ‘dry diet’. This diet consisted of four meals a week (only rice, sago, groats, porridge or potatoes) and stale bread in addition. Because Schroth believed copious drinking would weaken the patients, the only fluid they were allowed to drink was wine, on four days a week. This helped them to overcome the weariness that the ‘dry diet’ caused.
Photography was an important tool for Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles during the time he ran ‘Riposo’. He documented treatments, produced educational material and traced the history and methods of the ‘Schroth’ Cure. During a visit to Schroth’s hometown Lindewiese in Austria (now Czech Republic), Pitcairn-Knowles asked villagers to demonstrate the experiments with ‘wet packs’ that Schroth had applied to animals. Pitcairn-Knowles added photographs such as these to his ‘pictorial description of the great healer’s methods.’ Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles, and later his son Gordon Pitcairn-Knowles, used lantern slides to illustrate their lectures on cures. Some photo’s may also have been displayed at an exhibition at Riposo, to inform visitors about the cures employed at the estabablishment. ‘Riposo’ closed in 1962.

Descriptive line

'Four soldiers and two nurses? Wwi wounded', photograph by Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles, Hastings, 1910s to 1930s.

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

-Pitcairn-Knowles, Richard. The Edwardian eye of Andrew Pitcairn-Knowles 1871-1056. Sussex: The Book Guild Ltd, 2000.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘Eve and Adam strictly segregated: A Hastings Eden where the question of fashion is not pressing’ in The Sketch, Vol. LXXXIII, No. 1069, July 23, 1913, p. 8-9.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, The History and Development of the Schroth Cure: With an Explanation of Many Important Details of the Treatment, The Knowles Hydro Hardback, ca. 1930.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, The Original Schroth Elimination Cure. (?)
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, The Wet Sheet Pack. (?)
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘The Schroth Regeneration Cure’ in The Health & Nature Cure Handbook, Nature Cure Educational Association Hardback, vol. I, 1931
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘The Guelpa Disintoxification Cure’ in The Health & Nature Cure Handbook, Nature Cure Educational Association Hardback, vol. I, 1931.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘The Schroth Cure, The Great Poison Eliminator’ in The Health & Nature Cure Handbook, Nature Cure Educational Association Hardback, vol. II, 1932.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘Using Earth for Healing’ in The Health & Nature Cure Handbook, Nature Cure Educational Association Hardback, vol. II, 1932.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘Children’s Ailments and How to Treat Them’ in The Health & Nature Cure Handbook, Nature Cure Educational Association Hardback, vol. III, 1934.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘Nature Cure on the Continent - The Schroth Cure wins new followers’ in Health & Life, May 1937.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘Nature Cure on the Continent - Nature Cure’s Big Push in Dresden’ in Health & Life, May 1938.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew, ‘Nature Cure on the Continent - Health Wisdom among Russian Peasants’ in Health & Life, May 1939.
-Pitcairn-Knowles, Andrew. several articles in Health for All. (?)

Production Note

N.B. Riposo, Health Hydro & Dietetic Sanatorium, St. Helen’s Park, Hastings, Sussex, United Kingdom.

Subjects depicted

Health facilities; Illness; Treating; Medical centres; World wars; Health; Sunbathing; Wars; Health resorts; War photography

Categories

Photographs; Health; Portraits

Collection

Prints, Drawings & Paintings Collection

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