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Mandala of Candaroshana

  • Object:


  • Place of origin:

    Nepal (made)

  • Date:

    18th century (made)

  • Artist/Maker:


  • Materials and Techniques:

    Hammered copper and brass, parcel gilt

  • Museum number:

    IM.91:1 to 9-1936

  • Gallery location:

    Buddhism, Room 17, The Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation Galleries of Buddhist Art, case 3 []

This mandala is a ritual model that represents a divine space, typically, as here, visualised as a palace. Inside this protected space the deity, in this case the moon god Chandaroshana, appears with his consort. Three-dimensional mandalas such as this are external reminders of the mandalas visualised by Buddhist practitioners during religious ceremonies in which a deity is evoked and petitioned for help.

Physical description

Mandala of Chandaroshana. The mandala rests on a double base, chased and repoussé to represent the ocean of rebirth, the outer part of the upper base suggests a rampart of multiple crescent form (nine sections, each surmounted by a divinity). The mandala is a four walled enclosure, with four gates, above each of which appears a chakra flanked by two knealing gazelles. Inside the mandala are images of Chandaroshana and other Buddhist divinities.

Place of Origin

Nepal (made)


18th century (made)



Materials and Techniques

Hammered copper and brass, parcel gilt


Height: 65 cm overall

Descriptive line

mandala of Manjusri, copper brass, Tibet, 18th century

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Clarke, John; The New Robert H.N. Ho Family Foundation Galleries of Buddhist Art at the Victoria and Albert Museum,
Orientations; vol. 48. no. 5, September/October 2017, pp. 68, fig.9 and 9a.

Labels and date

Mandala of Chandaroshana (the Moon God)
During religious ceremonies, Buddhists often visualise a
protected, divine space known as a mandala. This threedimensional
mandala, used in rituals in Nepal and Tibet,
is an external reminder of an inner, visualised mandala.
It takes the form of a palace, in which the moon god
Chandaroshana appears with his consort when evoked
and petitioned for help.
Copper and partially gilded brass
Nepal or Tibet
Made by Nepalese craftsmen
Museum no. IM.91-1936 [14/06/2011]

Subjects depicted



Metalwork; Religion; Buddhism; Ceremonial objects


South & South East Asia Collection

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