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Chalice

Chalice

  • Place of origin:

    Birmingham (made)

  • Date:

    1868-1869 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    A.W. Pugin, born 1812 - died 1852 (designer)
    John Hardman & Co. (maker)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Silver, parcel -gilt, enamels and semi precious stones.

  • Credit Line:

    Lent by St. George's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Southwark

  • Museum number:

    LOAN:SOUTHWARK CATHEDRAL.3-2005

  • Gallery location:

    Sacred Silver & Stained Glass, Room 83, The Whiteley Galleries, case 6A

This elaborate and costly chalice was used during the Mass to serve the consecrated wine. It was designed by A.W.N. Pugin, the influential architect who promoted the Gothic as the true Christian style. The manufacturer was John Hardman & Co., the Birmingham ecclesiastical suppliers with whom Pugin was closely associated.

The chalice is a larger and more elaborate version of an earlier design that Pugin made for his patron, the Revd D.H. Haigh, in 1849–50. It shows that his designs were held in such high esteem that they were manufactured long after his death in 1852. Some remained in the Hardman catalogues until 1900. The designs were adapted to suit the needs of particular clients, and it has even been suggested that Pugin’s pupil, John Hardman Powell, may have reworked this particular design.

Physical description

Chalice, silver, parcel -gilt, enamels and semi precious stones. Rounded bowl with engraved inscription, large calyx with panels of vertical foliage. Knot bosses with blue enamel and applied embossed silver foliage and set with semi-precious stones. On the foot a crucifixion with sun and moon in silver reserved on red enamel, five panels of blue enamel with applied silver foliage and central carbuncle, interspersed with embossed leaves set with crystal. The foot pierced with delicate quatrefoils.

Place of Origin

Birmingham (made)

Date

1868-1869 (made)

Artist/maker

A.W. Pugin, born 1812 - died 1852 (designer)
John Hardman & Co. (maker)

Materials and Techniques

Silver, parcel -gilt, enamels and semi precious stones.

Marks and inscriptions

Birmingham hallmarks for 1868-9

Mark of John Hardman and Co

Engraved around the bowl: " Calicem salutaris accipiam et nomen domini invocabo" ( Receive the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the lord.)

Inscribed on a plate below the foot: " Rvd D. Huberto Jacobo Wood in Festo S. Laurentii MDCCCLXVl in memorium Presbyteratus." Perhaps recording the gift of the chalice after the death of the priest on the Feast of St. Laurence, 1866.

Dimensions

Height: 27.1 cm, Width: 18.4 cm of base

Historical context note

Furnishing the Church
A new business of church furnishing arose from the great surge in church building and restoration. Between 1840 and 1900, over 100 churches were built each year. Older buildings were restored or expanded. Every denomination from Anglican and Roman Catholic to Nonconformist was reacting to the widespread religious revival and the needs of an expanding population. Fitting out such large numbers of churches required specialist firms who could supply the complete range of furnishings. Clergy no longer commissioned individual tailors, furniture makers and silversmiths. Instead, stained glass windows, cl[Erical vestments and silver altar plate could all be ordered from church furnishers like Jones & Willis, Cox & Sons and John Hardman. These specialists would supply the correct equipment, as prescribed by the church reformers. They offered a choice of material, quality and prices to suit the resources of wealthy and poorer parishes. J. Whippell & Co. About 1902 Kind permission of J. Whippell & Co., Exeter

Leading Taste
The building, restoration and furnishing of churches were important outlets for Victorian creative talent. For some architects it was the mainstay of their business. The taste for the Gothic style, which became dominant though not universal,was led by architects like A.W.N. Pugin. Many Anglican architects were affiliated to reforming societies and closely concerned with design policy. Some were employed by commercial firms such as Cox & Sons to give their products a veneer of authenticity. In England so many medieval church fittings had been destroyed in the Reformation that architects were obliged to invent new forms. William Butterfield, the first official designer of the Cambridge Camden Society, modelled flagons on smaller medieval cruet shapes.

Descriptive line

Chalice, silver, parcel-gilt, enamels and semi-precious stones, Birmingham hallmarks for 1868-9, mark of John Hardman and Co, designed by A.W.N. Pugin

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Birmingham Gold and Silver, 1773-1973, Exhibition at the City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham, 28 July - 16 September, 1973

Labels and date

Chalice
This elaborate and costly chalice was used during the Mass to serve the consecrated wine. It was designed by A.W.N. Pugin, the influential architect who promoted the Gothic as the true Christian style. The manufacturer was John Hardman & Co., the Birmingham ecclesiastical suppliers with whom Pugin was closely associated.

The chalice is a larger and more elaborate version of an earlier design that Pugin made for his patron, the Revd D.H. Haigh, in 1849-50. It shows that his designs were held in such high esteem that they were manufactured long after his death in 1852. Some remained in the Hardman catalogues until 1900. The designs were adapted to suit the needs of particular clients, and it has even been suggested that Pugin's pupil, John Hardman Powell, may have reworked this particular design.

Birmingham, England, 1868-9; designed by
A.W.N. Pugin (1812-52), made by John Hardman
& Co.
Silver gilt with semi-precious stones and enamels
Lent by St George's Roman Catholic Cathedral,
Southwark [22/11/2005]

Categories

Metalwork; Christianity; Religion

Collection

Metalwork Collection

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