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Möllendorf service

  • Object:

    Cruet, cover and stand

  • Place of origin:

    Meissen (made)

  • Date:

    ca. 1761 (made)

  • Artist/Maker:

    Kändler, Johann Joachim, born 1706 - died 1775 (designer)
    Meissen porcelain factory (manufacturer)

  • Materials and Techniques:

    Hard-paste porcelain with moulded and applied decoration, painted in enamels and gilt

  • Credit Line:

    Purchased with the assistance of the Captain H. B. Murray Bequest

  • Museum number:

    C.243 to B-1921

  • Gallery location:

    Europe 1600-1815, Room 3, case CA6 []

This piece is from a dinner service made at the Meissen porcelain factory in Saxony, Germany, for Frederick the Great of Prussia around 1761. Frederick the Great had visited Meissen several times, placed orders with the factory, received gifts of Meissen porcelain from Augustus III, the Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and had plans to establish his own rival factory at Berlin before his Prussian forces occupied Saxony for the second time in 1756. Frederick ordered several table services from Meissen during the Prussian occupation of Saxony in the early 1760s. These were intended for his personal use, and he directed and oversaw their design. Artistically this service of 1761, now known as the Möllendorf Service, is the most important.

Many of the tableware shapes and the low relief moulded decoration of the Möllendorf Service were repeated from an earlier service of 1760, which was decorated at Frederick’s order with the same floral cartouches enclosing musical instruments and emblems of war. The handles on the tureen covers of both services were modelled either as Minerva, symbolizing the intelligent conduct of war and wise governance in peacetime, or as nymphs with flowers, fruit, corn or pitchers of wine. This earlier service was in turn inspired by another one, made for Count Bruhl, Prime Minister of Saxony, in 1742. Frederick stipulated in 1761 that his new service should be painted in the combination of the special red enamel and gold reserved at Meissen ‘for the Saxon ruler.’ The design and decoration were therefore in part taken from Saxon court services made for his subdued adversaries, and were politically charged.

The service was begun in 1761, and originally comprised 697 pieces, including 144 dinner plates and 48 soup plates. Dessert plates and possibly also the multi-part plat de ménage (centrepiece with lemon baskets and cruets) were added in 1763. In 1781 Frederick gave the service to General Wichard von Möllendorf, and as a consequence it is now generally known as the Möllendorf Service.

Physical description

Cruet, cover and stand of hard-paste porcelain, from a plat de ménage (centrepiece), part of the Möllendorf dinner service. Barrel-shaped, of oval section, moulded into shallow lobes; with two pairs of narrow transverse ribs, and projecting lip. At the top six small panels with trophies of musical instruments and sprays of flowers in low relief within gilt rococo borders, the interspaces filled with scale-pattern in deep orange and gold. On the sides, sprays of flowers painted in deep orange-red and gold. Loop-handle formed of a twisted vine-branch, with leaf and fruit attachments. Slightly domed lid, decorated in a similar manner with panels in low relief, and scale pattern, painted in orange and gold; with knob in the form of a bunch of grapes. The oval dish-shaped stand is bordered with a ring of rushes, from which rises a standing satyr with pan-pipes and grapes. Flat unglazed base.

Place of Origin

Meissen (made)

Date

ca. 1761 (made)

Artist/maker

Kändler, Johann Joachim, born 1706 - died 1775 (designer)
Meissen porcelain factory (manufacturer)

Materials and Techniques

Hard-paste porcelain with moulded and applied decoration, painted in enamels and gilt

Dimensions

Height: 180 mm, Width: 150 mm, Depth: 100 mm

Object history note

Part of a dinner service (Möllendorf service), C.238 to 256-1921.

Descriptive line

Cruet, cover and stand, part of a dinner service (Möllendorf service), hard-paste porcelain with moulded and applied decoration, painted in enamels and gilt, made by Meissen porcelain factory, Germany, ca. 1761

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no)

Banz, Claudia, ed. Triumph of the Blue Swords. Dresden, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, 2010.275p. ill.

Labels and date

Meissen Service for Frederick the Great

This dinner service originally comprised over 685 pieces, each with matching decoration as in a modern table service. The set illustrates how dining habits changed in the 18th century. It is made of porcelain, which increasingly replaced silver at grand meals. It features tureens for the new, fashionable soups French chefs had introduced, and grand centrepieces made for condiments. These would have dominated the table.

Part dinner service
Cruets for oil and vinegar
About 1761–63

Salads made with raw vegetables and herbs were an essential part of the new French cuisine. They were usually dressed with oil, vinegar and salt, a combination that dates from classical times.

Germany (Dresden)
Made at the Meissen factory
Made for and under the direction of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, and modelled by Johann Joachim Kändler
Porcelain painted in enamels and gilded
Purchased with funds from the Captain H.B. Murray Bequest []

Materials

Hard paste porcelain

Techniques

Painted; Gilt; Moulded; Applied work

Subjects depicted

Flowers; Scale pattern; Musical instruments; Grapes

Categories

Ceramics; Porcelain; Eating; Food vessels & Tableware

Collection

Ceramics Collection

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